Charles had alot of problems with foregin policy, especially in these years. By 1625 (so at the beginning of this period) Charles and Buckingham were already in a bad position. This is because they had attempted to set up an Anti-Spanish "Front" to fooooooooooorce the Hapsburgs to RESTORE the palatinate (fredricks land) to Charle's Brother-in-law. This Anti Spanish "front" malarky..... was basically this:
Making an alliance with Christian IV Denmark where basically it was agreed that if England supported him/them financially, he would attack the Hapsburgs in North Germany.Financial for the dutch in the same causeAn english Army (of 6000 men) to be provided for german protestant mercenary - Mansfeld: who had already fought FOR (woo) frederick in the palatinate.*A sea war against spain (in hope to cut off gold and silver supplies they were getting from south america). < & obvs them supplies were paying for the forces of spain/hapsburg emperor.**
HOWEVER, parliament (stingy) only offered them £250,000 for the sea war, and they weren't keen on all the other ideas (these were gunna cost bucko and charles like £2 million!!) & you could say if all these plans had gone well, Parliament may have considered the ££ and helped. But the plans FAILED, so as you can guess parliament was NEVER prepared to pay the crown.
There were so many Foreign policy failures which were going to make Charles and Buckingham very unpopular!!!
By 1626 the strategy was in RUINS and Buckingam was being blamed for all! << Oh no, peple are deffo suspecting his minipulation.
Mansfeld Failure 1625
The 6000 troops, that had been planned for Mansfeld to help when fighting the palatinate, were poorly trained (raised by IMPRESSMENT< they had been forced in the military).
They had no training and were equipped badly (counties expense) before being sent of to Flushing in Holland.
YOU CAN SEE WHERE THIS IS GOING.
Mansfeld did NOT have the organisation to feed or look after them and 4000 died of disease and starvation. The rest Never even going to battle.
Cadiz failure (drunk!) 1625
Charles and Buckingham really showed themselves up, deciding to attack one of the main ports - Cadiz, (to destroy as the Spanish fleet as they could and then to attack the Spanish treasure fleet as it came into range!
**Again troops were untrained and raised from county millitias.**
They made it ashore at Cadiz but found a huge wine store and (taking advantage of this and showing themselves up as foolish) obviously discipline broke down and the troops had to be withdrawn to the ships having DONE NOTHING except capture a small fort.
Buckingham THEN decided to wait at sea for the Spanish fleet, but never managed to intercept it. There was also not enough food on the ships for the troops and many had DIED by the time they got back (pathetic mission.)
***ALSO CHRISTIAN IV DID INVADE NORTH GERMANY (like the anti spanish front plan said) BUT WAS SOON DEFEATED BY THE IMPERIAL GERMAN WALLENSTEIN
The FRENCH MATCH - 1625
After the failure of the Spanish match (infanta lol), in 1623, and Buckingham and Charles new anti spanish policy, They looked for a new ally in europe and a new bride for charles! HENRIETTA MARIA, daughter of the King of France, was chosen. ALTHOUGH she was ROMAN CATHOLIC, they could see advantages in the marraige:
France were getting more and more worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and IMPERIALISTS in the 30 years war, therefore with persuasion (and because they seemed quite scared) France would probably take part fighting against them.
DOWRY - £££ (wedding settlement) of £240,000 and this would help Charles finance the war :)
The terms of marraig agreement said charles had to tolerate Roman Catholics in England - this would be impossible to carry out and it also caused suspicions in the country (it was a secret but rumours had been going around!)
The BREAK with France 1626 - 1627
In order to PLEASE french, Buckingham had lent them English ships which were going to be used against the Protestant Rebels (Huguenots) who were fighting the French Crown. The crews mutinied rather than fight FELLOW protestants.
Meanwhile, Charles, in need of parliamentary subsidies, wished to keep suspicions of a "omg a roman catholic wife" secret. He therefore DIDN'T carry out part of the marriage treaty that dealt with giving roman Catholics toleration. He also expelled most of Henrietta Maria's French Catholic servants too! Due to this relations between charles and his new wife = icy and edgy (and she HATED buckingham, as a rival for the King's affections.)
Richelieu The French Minister regarded Buckingham and Charles as = UNRELIABLE/having no intention (at this point) in joining them against the hapsburgs. So Buckinham reversed his policy (in hope that he would gain popularity of the french) by helping the huguenots (protestant rebels) who were beseiged by French Royal forces in their stronghold, the port of LA ROCHELLE.
WAR WITH 2 COUNTRIES.
So england (silly England) found itself at war with two of the most powerful nations in Europe. << disasterous policy of the anti spanish front, don't you think?In 1627 Buckingham led a naval expedition to try and land troops at LA ROCHELLE to support the Huguenots.The Landing at the Ile De Re, in 1627 was also another military disaster (oh not again!) < and buckingham had to retreaaaat to his ships without helping the defenders of La Rochelle, who surrended to the French Royal Forces shortly afterwards (1628) Buckingham = MOST DESPISED MAN IN ENGLAND. Buckingham was seen as the driving force behind all the military failures (mansfeld/cadiz/huguenots at la rochelle) The Ile De Re, was kind of the last straw! In 1628 Buckingham was preparing another expedition to help the Huguenots when he was assasinated (stabbing him in portsmouth) by John Felton, a captain who had a grudge against him from the last expedition. (cadiz/ile de re). Charles NEVER forgot or forgave the happiness/rejoicing in the House of Commons. and he lost his heart for any further adventures in Europe (to support prots or brother-in-law) and by 1630/1 he had made peace with both spain and france. During the 1630s prusuing a nuetral policy towards everything (though he favoured spain.)
so buckinghams death led to beginning of personal rule? charles devastated by parliament and his CBA to continue with adventures (therefore a more peaceful foreing policy later. His and Henrietta's relationship changed too, she began to have more n more influence over him.
THE EFFECT OF ALL THESE WARS.
The wars in the 1620's:
*Put alot of strain on counties (Charles has to raise forced loans and the Deputy Lieutennants had to collect troops, who were fed and housed by the counties until transported to the ports (also counties expense)
*Great upheavel and expense ^ BUT troops were then "thrown away" in what the country saw as incompetent attacks. The effect of Charles' and Buckingham's Forein Policy, was to cause division between the crown and the "political nation" divisions that were to DOMINATE the parliaments of 1625-29..... leading to personal rule :)