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court = narrow range of interests which had poltical consequences

court no longer filled role of communication between court and country

became isolated from mainstream religous, intellectual and cultural life 

the kings actions were misunderstood because he was:

  • introverted
  • politcally inept
  • a believer of divine right
  • saw any critism as treacherous
  • poor communicator

his assession signalled reglious change as he gave his support to Arminians. this is reinforced by the French Match of 1624 and the suspension of recusancy laws, although England did attempt to help the Protestant Hugenots

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he had no choice but to enbark on a £1 million campaign and needed parliamentry funds to do so

this was not likely in 1626 due to:

  • broken promises of a sea war
  • pro catholic foreign policy
  • refusal to explain crowns position

parliament gave £140 000 and Tonnage and Poundage for 1 year (usually given for life) and thought the crowns foreign policy was misguided

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In 1625 he attempted to set up an anti- Hapsburg front by:

  • Making a financial alliance with Demark and the Dutch
  • Mansfled expedition
  • Sea war to cut off Spanish Treasurer fleets

Parliament only voted for £250 000 per year which was not enough

Faliures of FP:

  • Mansfled Expedition 1624 : no training, badly equipped and disease spread
  • Cadiz Expedition 1625 : troops found alcohol and the expedition collapsed
  • Christian of Demark did invake Germany but was defeated by general Wallenstein
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THE FRENCH MATCH 1624: This marriage alliance had diplomatic advantages (£240k dowry)

BREAK WITH FRANCE: The English had given the French ships which they used against the Protestant Hugenots.

The french cheif minister has no intention of joining England with war, despite Buckingham's attempts

Buckingham therefor threatened to remove the ships from La Rochelle and enforce recusancy fines

After the failure of the Mansfled expedition, he did exactly that and promoted the prospect of a war with France too

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After the death of James I in 1625, England abandoned their conciliatory role in international affairs and signalled war with Spain and France

There were serious financial and miliary necessities to do so and caused the crown to exercise emergency powers, which increased the fear of absolutism - which threatened the traditional government role

war had not be offically declared which caused parliament to be hesistant to give funds.

Billeting of army for war against France caused opposition from JPs who collects troops and had to house them

added impositions of martial law, increase military payments and enforcing billeting of troops

without parliamentary supply, england had to make peace with Spain (1630) and France (1629)

FP caused divisions between the crown and political nation

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  • Belived in ceremonies, bowing an statutes
  • Hated Calvinism
  • Attacked Puritan ideals

Charles favoured Arminians because they stressed the idea of divine right and thought Puritan ministers were filling minds with subversive ideas

RICHARD MONTAGUE: Published a tract which rejected predestination Calvinism; Charles indicated his support to radical ideas when he made him his chaplin in 1625

WILLIAM LAUD'S appearance in court foreshadowed Laudian supremacy in church. for many Laud was see as popery. In 1628 he became bishop of London

After the 1626 parliament, Charles issued a proclamation which supported Arminians; Laudian ministers preach about supporting divine right and attacked Puritans

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In 1627, Sibthrope - an Arminian minister -  preached that resist to pay forced loans to the king was against god’s will.

This showed the close relationship between the Arminians and royal absolutist divine right policies

Abott refused to license sibthrope sermons = he suspended

1628: Laud made Bishop of London

1633: Laud made Archbishop of Canterbury until executed in 1645

Laud's aim was to return the church to a more powerful position. He wanted to sppress Puritanism and preachers

He attempted to improve the financial position of the clergy

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the city refused to give Charles a £20k loan which forced him to order forced loans worth 5 subsidies. This was an attempt to levy taxation without parliamentary consent and within 10 months £240k was collected with alot of opposition. Judges refused to state its legitimacy

sources of extra parliamentary taxation were drying up

the city loan of £12 000 was negociated only in the transfer of some crowns land

In 1627: 5 subsidies were not recorded until greivances were satisfied

the commons wanted the king to realised the illegality of: 

  • extra parliamentary taxation
  • billeting
  • marital law
  • imprision without trial
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WESTON = Lord Treasurer

COTTINGTON = Chancellor of the Exchequer

the 1629 subsidy was a failure and caused a serious  financial situation

the crown needed to cve expenditure and increase revenue

there was little evidence of financial mismanagement from C + W

1629-32 : short term savings were done in the household and the deficit reduced to £18k

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the 1625 parliament:

  • suspensed soft catholic policies
  • voted tonnage and poundage for one year ( a way of protesting about Buckingham)
  • charles ignored these actions and continued to collect it
  • the commons voted 2 subsides for a sea war
  • Buckingham removed his enemies from the court and local governments

Finances without Parliament 1626-28:

  • sold £350k of crowns land to pay off debt; there was little rent from crown lands
  • Benevolence: an attempt to persuade tax payers to give tax to crown and not parliament = had limited response
  • force loans in 1627 - very little people could refuse this- they were opposed on legal grounds

1628: Charles created suspicion when he promoted Arminianism and called parliament for £500k

marital law and billeting were see as illegal and the king's attacking in the 5KC showed he had little regard for the law

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He has a predominant role in redistributing bounty and only gave it to a few

His monopoly forced natural allies who disputed more in court

the king Should have distributed patronage widely and freely

1626: YORK HOUSE: a theological debate where John Preston Puritan was disregaurded and Laud Arminian was adopted

Parlimanet began his empeachment and Charles threatened an dissolution, creating fears of abolutism

1628: Assassinated by John Felton

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5 Men refused to pay the forced loans and were imprisoned without trial

the judges didn't agree the king had the right to do so in all cases and Charles ordered to changed the records

this made opposition bitter and in 1628 there was a united demand for actions to prevent this but way to do so differed


Martial law replaced ordinary law and the ordinary legal rights of subjects

this was very disturbing to the gentry who saw martial law as a form of absolutism

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asked for a settlemtn of parliament's complaints against the king's non parliamentary taxing, imprisonment without trial and martial law + billeting

highlighted the tradtional rights of subjects and aimed to demand  ancient liberties:

  • forced loans were illegal
  • no one should be imprisioned without trial
  • soldiers should not be billeted
  • marital law was illegal

the petition left out the used of tonnage and poundage and Charles claimed he didn't surrender the right to levy customs without parliamentary consent

charles met to parliament and refused to make concessions on the changes he wanted

parliamentary leaders didnt want to breach with the king but this failed as some MPs pressed oppositon about tonnage+poundage and Arminianism

after the petition was passed £250k was given to the king but his religious policies were attacked and recusancy laws were enforced and the collection of T+P

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The speaker, Sir John Finch, tried to adjourn the House on the king's command and was held done in his chair by 3 memebers while they read out the 3 resolutions:

these opposed:

  • extra parliamentary taxation
  • tonnage and poundage
  • arminianism

1) anyone that brought popery + arminianism should be an enemy of king and kingdom

2) anyone who advised the king to collect T+P was a capital enemy

3) anyone who paid T+P was an enemy

parliament was dissolved after 2 days

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