Development P&F

Peer influences differ at different stages

  • infancy and toddlerbood: limited influence/family/caregivers
  • in childhood: main interaction is peers through play, still less important than family
  • teenagers: growing peer influence

Free play is:

  • enjoyable, engaging
  • intrinsically motivates, free from external rules
  • concerned with means not ends

Types of play

  • play changes as the motor, social, cognitive and language skills of the child develops
  • object play/sensorimotor play
  • pretend play/sociodramatic play
  • social pretend play
  • rough and tumble play
  • language play

Social participation in play

  • Parten (1932) observed 2-4 year olds
  • > unoccupied (no activity)
  • > onlooker (watching but not joining in)
  • > solitary (alone) 
  • > parallel (side by side but little interaction
  • > associative (share and swap toys but pursue own interest)
  • > cooperative (make believe themes, reciprocal roles, shared goals

Cognitive changes in play

  • parallel play (6-12 m) - two children do similar activities without paying attention to each other
  • parallel aware play (1 year) - children engage in parallel play whilst…


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