• Idea of determinism is that everything has a prior cause including humans and our actions. everything is determined so we do not have free will and therefore should not accept moral responsibility for our actions. 
  • Pre-destination in the Bible. Formulated by theologians like Augustine of Hippo and John Calvin:
  • Idea that God determines everything and pre determines who he shall save (go to heaven) and the rest will go their natural way to hell. 
  • Seems to suggest that humans have no free will - they cannot try and achieve salvation as their 'destination' has already been decided no matter what they do. 
  • Humans have a naturally sinful nature and those that are only good are only because God has decided he will save them.
  • Hard determinism is incompatible with free will. As our actions all have prior causes we arent free to act in any other way. 
  • Case of Clarence Darrow in 1924 defence lawyer for Leopold and Loeb who…


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