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Slide 1

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The Principle Of
`Hard' And `Soft'
Internal And
Shareen Akhtar…read more

Slide 2

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The Principle Of Causality
All events are determined by previously
undertaken events.
Benedict Spinoza: - doubted that we are free
and thought that we are ignorant of the real
causes behind our actions.
"Men think themselves free on account of this
alone, that they are conscious of their actions
and ignorant of the causes of them" (1674)…read more

Slide 3

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The Principle Of Causality
Observable events are subject to the laws of
Scientific knowledge is based on the premise
that events can be predicted by past events.
This principle governs everything from the
smallest particle to the largest stellar body…read more

Slide 4

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Hard Determinism
This is the view that we are not free and
cannot be held morally responsible for our
"All our choices, decisions, intentions, other
mental events, and our actions, are no more
than the effects of other equally necessitated
events" (Honderich)
All our actions have a prior cause
This includes sociological, psychological,
religious, political and cultural influences.…read more

Slide 5

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Hard Determinism
One of these influences may not be enough to
determine all future actions- together these
influences would
The world runs to strictly applicable natural
This implies that people cannot be held
morally responsible for their actions.…read more

Slide 6

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Hard Determinism
We are all a product of our genes, upbringing
and surroundings.
Determinists take this into account and to
some extent the justice system does this also.
It seems true that there is a prior cause for
everything, including our actions and our
choices, since our character is a product of
other causes.…read more

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Slide 9

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Slide 10

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