Comparative Studies: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW!

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UK

Physical Education:

·         Focuses on participation/skill learning/holistic development/educational emphasis/BAHL

·         Assessed less formally using teacher assessment and widespread examination in PE

·         Has Specialist sport colleges/Beacon Schools which focus on sport

·         Decentralised admin but becoming more centralised

·         Schools are state funded but seek additional funding

·         Government determines national curriculum and PE is a secure subject compulsory till 16

·         Inspected by Ofsted and PE has a high status

Geographical determinants:

·         Population approx. 60 million; small country aiming low

·         Improving organisation and administration of high performance sport e.g. academies

·         Decentralised system; several autonomous bodies e.g. Youth Sport Trust

·         Funded by national lottery; some government, lottery and private

·         Mixed economy not exclusively driven by competition

·         Increased commercialism of sport; linked with multi-national companies- followed America

·         Fame and fortune for few e.g. men in association football

·         Relative small country so is straight forward to standardise initiatives for provision and participation

Historical determinants:

·         Tradition of amateurism and professionalism

·         Most or many sports invented in Britain

·         Influenced by C19th public schools; importance of fair play

Social determinants:

·         Opportunity not equal; social classes, minority groups

·         Some sports attract minorities e.g. cricket popular with Asian and Rugby Women’s WC

·         Tradition of mass participation; taking part rather than winning; Sportsmanship but Lombardinism is increasing especially after London 2012 Olympics

·         Reluctant to adopt elitist view

Values:

·         Tradition of mass participation; taking part rather than winning; Sportsmanship but Lombardinism is increasing especially after London 2012 Olympics

·         Reluctant to adopt elitist view

·         Sport for young driven by participation as well as performance

Mass participation:

·         Participation typically more important than winning

·         Club structure provides provision

·         Money is made due to participation in sport not only spectator sport

·         National Curriculum empasises on participation

Professional/Amateur:

·         Colleges not normally centres of sporting excellence but some exeptions e.g. Loughborough and Bath

·         Some scholarships but not on same scale to USA

·         Status of sport varies among universitys

Sports:

Rugby Union (Background) :

·         In 1800s had limited rules and resembled mob game ; evolved during 1800s

·         Developed in 19th century Public Schools e.g. Rugby School

·         Schools impacted on senior games as many clubs were e.g. by Old Boys, strong club structure

·         RFU established in 1871

·         Controlled aggression rather than outright violence seen in NFL ; rules restrict physicallity ; no protective clothing ; no forward pass 

·         Games reflected values of Public School or Empire e.g. leadership, courage and determination

·         Became proffessional in 1995 ; resisted comercilism

·         Middle class game

·         Game spread to 18th Century countires of empire

(Contemporary Status) :

·         Very high status especially in some parts of UK ; not most popular sport

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