In order to look at some organelles under an electron microscope, you'd need to separate them from the rest of the cell.
There are three steps to cell fractionation:
Homogenisation (breaking up the cells) - it can be done in several different ways, such as vibrating the cells or grinding the cells up in a blender, to break the plasma membrane and release the organelles into a solution.
The solution is kept ice cold to reduce enzyme activity, and isotonic to prevent osmosis. A buffer is added to keep a constant…