Year 1 Glossary

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What is Activation Energy?
Energy required to bring about a reaction. The activation energy is lowered by the presence of enzymes.
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Active Immunity
Resistance to disease resulting from the actives of an individual's own immune system whereby an antigen induces plasma cells to produce antibodies.
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Active Site
A group of amino acids that make up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits in order to catalyst a reaction
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Active Transport
Movement of a substance from a region of where it is in a low concentration to a region where it is in a high concentration. The process requires the expenditure of metabolic energy.
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Aerobic
Connected with the presence of free oxygen. Aerobic respiration requires free oxygen to release energy from glucose.
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Allele
One of a number of alternative forms of a gene. E.g. the gene for the shape of pea shape has two alleles (one for round shape, one for wrinkled shape).
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Allergen
A normally harmless substance that causes the immune system to produce an immune response.
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Allergy
The response of the immune system to an allergen. Examples include hay fever and asthma.
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Antibiotic
A substance produced by living organisms that can destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
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Antibiotic Resistance
The development in microorganisms of mechanisms that prevent antibiotics from killing them.
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Antibody
A protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of the appropriate antigen.
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Anticodon
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a molecule of transfer RNA that is complementary to a particular codon on a messenger RNA molecule.
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Antigen
A molecule the triggers an immune response by lymphocytes.
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Antioxidant
A chemical which reduces or prevents oxidation. Often used as an additive to prolong the shelf-life of certain foods.
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Apoplastic Pathway
A route through the cell walls and intercellular spaces of plants by which water and dissolved substance are transported.
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Artificial Selection
Breeding of organisms by human selection of parents/gametes in order to perpetuate certain characteristics and/or eliminate others.
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Asthma
A chronic illness in which there is a resistance to air flow to the alveoli of the lungs as a result of the airways becoming inflamed due to an allergic response to an allergen.
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Atheroma
Fatty Deposits in the walls of arteries, often associated with high cholesterol levels in the blood.
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What does ATP stand for?
Adenine Triphosphate
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What is ATP?
A nucleotide found in all living organisms, which is produced during respiration and is important in the transfer of energy.
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Autosomes
A chromosome which is not a sex chromosome.
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B Cell / B lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell that is produced and matures within the bone marrow. B lymphocytes produce antibodies as part of the their role in immunity.
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Benedicts' test
A simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of reducing sugars.
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Biodiversity
The range and variety of genes, species and habitats within a particular region.
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Biomass
The total mass of living material, normally measured in a specific area over a given period of time.
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Biuret test
A simple biochemical reaction to detect the presence of protein.
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BMI
Body Mass Index. A person's body mass in kilograms divided by the square of their height in metres.
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Cancer
A disease resulting from cells that break away from an original tour to form secondary tumors elsewhere in the body.
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Carcinogen
A chemical, a form of radiation or other agent that causes cancer.
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Cardiac Cycle
A continuous series of events which makes up a single heart beat.
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Cardiac Output
The total volume of blood that the heart can pump each minute. It is calculated as the volume of blood pumped at each beat (the stroke volume) multiple by the number of heart beats per minute.
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Carrier Molecules/ Carrier Protein
A protein on the surface of a cell that helps to transport molecules and ions across plasma membranes.
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Casparian *****
A distinctive band of Suberin around the endodermal cells of a plant root that prevents water passing into xylem via the cell walls. The water is forced through the living part (protoplast) of the endodermal cells.
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Centrifugation
The process of separating out particles of different sizes and densities by spinning them at high speed in a centrifuge.
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Cholesterol
A lipid that is an important component of cell-surface membranes. Excess in the blood can lead to atheroma.
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Chromatid
One of the two strands of a chromosome that are joined together by a single centromere prior to cell division.
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Chromatin
The material that makes up chromosomes. It consists of DNA and the protein histone.
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Chromosome
A thread-like structure made of protein and DNA by which hereditary information is physically passed from one generation to the next.
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Clone
A group of genetically identical cells or organisms formed from a single parent as the result of asexual reproduction or by artificial means.
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Codon / Triplet
A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid.
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Cohesion
The attraction between molecules of the same type. It is important in the movement
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Collagen
Fibrous protein that is the main constituent of connective tissues such as tendons, cartilage and bone.
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Community
All the living organisms present in an ecosystem at a given time.
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Complementary DNA
DNA that is made from messenger RNA in a process that is the reverse of normal transcription
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Condensation
Chemical process in which two molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a simple substance, usually water. Many biological polymers, such as polysaccharides and polypeptides, are formed by condensation.
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Continuous Variation
Variation in which the organisms do not fall into distinct categories but show gradations from on extreme to the other.
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Coronary Arteries
Arteries that supply blood to the cardiac muscle of the heart.
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Coronary heart Disease (CHD)
Any condition affecting the coronary arteries that supply heart muscles (such as atheroma and thrombosis).
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Correlation
When a change in one variable is reflected by a change in the second variable.
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Co-transport
The transport of on substance coupled with the the transport of another substance across a plasma membrane in the same direction through the same protein carrier.
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Countercurrent System
A mechanism by which the efficiency of exchange between two substance is increased by having them flowing in opposite directions.
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Covalent Bond
Type of chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons, one from each atom.
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Crossing over
The process whereby a chromatid breaks during meiosis and regions to the chromatid of its homologous chromosome so that their alleles are exchanged.
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Denaturation
The permanent changes due to the unravelling of the three-dimensional structure of a protein as a result of factors such as changed in the temperature or pH.
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Diastole
The stage in the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle relaxes.
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Differentiation
The process by which the cells become specialized for different functions.
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Diffusion
The movement of molecules or ions form a region where they are in high concentration to one where their concentration is lower.
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Diploid
A term applied to cells in which the nucleus contains two sets of chromosomes.
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Dipolar
Having a pair of equal and opposite electrical charges.
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Ecological niche
Describes how an organism fits into its environment. It describes what a species is like, where it occurs, how it behaves, its interactions with other species and how it responds to its environment.
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Ecosystem
All the living and non-living components of a particular area.
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Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle that orbits the positively charged nucleus of all atoms.
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Emphysema
A disease in which the walls of the alveoli break down, reducing the surface area for gaseous exchange, thereby causing breathlessness in the patient.
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Endocytosis
The inward transport of large molecules through the cell-surface membrane.
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Enzyme
A protein or RNA that acts as a catalysts and so alters the speed of biochemical reaction.
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Epidemiology
The study of the spread of disease and the factors that affect this spread.
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Eukaryotic Cell
A cell that has a membrane bound nucleus and chromosomes. The cell also possesses a variety of other membranous organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum.
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Exocytosis
The outward bulk transport of materials through the cell-surface membrane.
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Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion involving the presence of protein carrier molecules to allow the passive movement of substances across plasma membranes.
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Gamete
Reproductive cells that fuse with other gametes during fertilization (Ovum or sperm).
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Gene
A section of DNA on a chromosome coding for one or more polypeptides.
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Gene Pool
The total number of alleles in a particular population at a specific time.
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Glycolysis
First part of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down anaerobically in the cytoplasm to two molecules of pyruvate.
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Habitat
The place where an organism normally lives and which is characterized by physical conditions and the types of other organisms present.
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Haemoglobin
Globular protein in blood that readily combines with oxygen to transport it around the body. It compromises four polypeptide chains around an iron-contanig haem group.
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Haploid
A term referring to cells that contain only a single copy of each chromosome, e.g. gametes.
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Homologous chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes, on maternal and one paternal, that have the same gene loci and therefore determine the same features. They are not necessarily identical however, as individual alleles of the same gene may vary (one chromosome may vary.
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Human Genome
The totality of the DNA sequence not he chromosomes of a single human cell.
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Hydrogen Bond
A chemical bond formed between the positive charge on the hydrogen atoms and the engine charge on another auto of an adjacent molecule.
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Hydrolysis
The break down of large molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water molecules.
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Immunity
The means by which the body protects itself from infection.
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Intercropping
The practice of growing two ir more crops in close proximity usually to produce a greater yield on a piece of land .
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Interspecific Variation
The differences between organisms of different species.
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Ion
An atoms or group of atoms that has lost or gained one or more electrons. Ions therefore have a positive or negative charge.
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Ion Channel
A passage across a cell-surface membrane made up of a protein that spans the membrane and opens and closes to allow ions to pass in and out of the cell.
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Isotope
Variations of a chemical element that have the same number of protons and electrons but with different numbers of neutrons. They differ in mass but babe similar chemical properties.
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Kinetic Energy
Energy that an object possesses due to its motions
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Laten Heat of Vaporisation
Heat taken in by liquid in order to transform it into a vapour.
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Locus
The position of a gene on a chromosome/ DNA molecule.
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Lumen
The hollow cavity inside tubular stricture such as the gut or a xylem vessel.
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Lymph
A slightly milky fluid found in lymph vessels and made up of tissue fluid, fats and lymphocytes.
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Lymphocytes
Type of white blood cell responsible for the immune response. They became activated in the presence of antigens. There are B and T lymphocytes.
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Meiosis
The type of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is halved.
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Mesophyll
Tissue found between the two layers of epidermis in a plant leaf compromising of an upper layer of palisade cells and a lower layer of spongy cells.
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Metabolism
All the chemical processes that take place in a living organism
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Microvilli
Tiny finger-like projections from the cell-surface membrane of some animal cells.
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Middle Lamella
A layer made up of pectins and other substances found between the walls of adjacent plant cells.
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Mitosis
The type of nuclear division in which the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
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Monoclonal Antibody
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells.
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Monomer
on of many small molecules that combine to form a larger one known as a polymer.
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Mono-unsaturated fatty acid
Fatty acid that possesses a carbon chain with a single double bond.
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Mutation
A sudden change in the amount or the arrangement of the genetic material in the cell.
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Myocardial infarction
AKA heart attack. It results from the interruption of the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing damage to an area of the heart with consequent disruption to its function.
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Nitrogen Fixation
The incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen gas into organic nitrogen-contains compounds.
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Normal Distribution
A bell-shaped curve produced when certain distribution is plotted on a graph.
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Nucleotides
Complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and a phosphate. They are the basic units of which the nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made.
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Oral Rehydration Solution
A means of treating dehydration involving giving, by mouth, a balanced solution of salts and glucose that stimulates the gut to reabsorb water.
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Osmosis
The passage of water from a region of high water potential to a region where its water potential is lower, through selectively permeable membrane.
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Oxidation
Chemical reaction involving the loss of electrons.
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Palisade cells
Long narrow cells, packed with chloroplasts, that are found in the upper region of a leaf and which carry out photosynthesis.
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Passive immunity
Resistance to disease that is acquired from the introduction of antibodies from another individual, rather than an indicudals own immune system, e.g. across the placenta or a mother milk. Its short lived.
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Pathogen
Any microorganism that causes disease.
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Pentose sugar
A sugar that possesses five carbon atoms e.g. Ribose and Deoxyribose.
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Peptide Sugar
The chemical bond formed between two amino acids during condensation.
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Phagocytosis
A mechanism by which cells engulf particles to form a vesicle or a vacuole.
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Phospholipid
Triglyceride in which one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate molecule. Phospholipids are important in the structure and functioning of plasma membranes.
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Photomicrograph
Photograph of an image produced by a microscope.
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Plasmid
A small circular piece of DNA found in bacterial cells.
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Plasmodesmata
Fine strands of cytoplasm that extend through pore in adjacent plant cell walls and connect the cytoplasm of one cell with another.
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Plasmolysis
The shrinkage of cytoplasm away from the cell wall that occurs as a plant cell loses water by osmosis.
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Polymer
Large molecules made up of repeating smaller molecules called monomers.
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Polymerases
A group of enzymes that catalase the formation of long-chain molecules (polymers) from similar basic units (monomers).
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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)
Fatty acid that possesses carbon chains with many double bonds,
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Primary Protein Structure
The sequence of amino acids that make up the polypeptide of a protein.
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Prokaryotic cell
A cell of an organism belong to the kingdom Prokaryotae that is characterized by lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, e.g. Bacteria.
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Protoplast
The living portion of a plant cell, that is, the nucleus and cytoplasm along with the organelles it contains.
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Quaternary Protein structure
A number of polypeptide chain linked together, and sometimes associated with non-protein groups, to form a protein.
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Reduction
Chemical process involving the gain of electrons
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Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms
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Secondary Protein Structure
The way in which the chain of amino acids of the polypeptides of a protein is folded.
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Selective breeding
The same as artificial selection.
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Semi-conservative Replication
The means by which DNA makes exact copies of itself by unwinding the double helix so that each chain acts as a template for the next. Hence, the new copies have one original and one new DNA strand.
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Serum
Clear liquid that is left after blood has clotted and the clot has been removed. It is blood plasma without the clotting factors.
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Sinoatrial Node (SAN)
An area of heart muscle in the right atrium that controls and coordinates the contraction of the heart. Also know as the pacemaker.
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Species
A group of similar organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring.
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Stoma / Stomata
A pore, mostly found in the lower epidermis of a leaf, through which gases diffuse out of the leaf.
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Stroke Volume
The volume of blood pumped at each ventricular contraction of the heart.
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Substrate
A substance that is acted on or used by another substance or process. In microbiology, the nutrient medium used to grown microorganisms.
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Supernatant Liquid
The liquid portion of a mixture left at the top of the tube when suspended particles have been separated out at the bottom during centrifugation.
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Symplastic Pathway
The route through which the cytoplasm and plasmodesmata of plant cells by which water and dissolve substance are transported.
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Systole
The stage in the cardiac cycle in which the heart muscle contracts it occurs in two stages: atrial systolic; when the atria contract and ventricular systole; when the ventricles contract.
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Tertiary Protein Structure
The folding of a whole polypeptide chain in a precise way, as determined by the amino acids of which it is composed.
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Thrombosis
The formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel that may lead to a blockage.
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Tidal Volume
The volume of air breathed in and out during a single breath when at rest.
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Tissue
A group of similar cells organized into a structural unit that serve a particular function.
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Tissue Fluid
Fluid that surrounds the cells of the body. Its composition is similar to that of blood plasma expect it lacks proteins. It supplies nutrients to the cells and removes waste products.
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T cell/ T lymphocyte
Type of white blood cell that is produced in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland. They coordinate the immune response and kill infected cells.
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Transpiration
Evaporation of water from a plant
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Triglyceride
An individual lipid molecule made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
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Tumour
A swelling in an organism that is made up of cells that continue to divide in an abnormal way.
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Turgid
A plant cell that contains the maximum volume of water it can. Addition entry of water is prevented by the cell wall stopping further expansion of the cell.
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Ultrafiltration
Filtration assisted by blood pressure, e.g. in the formation of tissue fluid.
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Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms.
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Vaccination
The introduction of a vaccine containing appropriate disease antigens into the body, by injection or mouth, in order to induce artificial immunity.
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Water Potential
The pressure created by water molecules. It is the measure of the extent to which a solution gives out water. The greater the number of water molecules present, the higher (less negative) the water potential. Pure water has water potential of zero.
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Xerophyte
A plant adapted to living in dry conditions
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Xylem Vessels
The dead, hollow, elongated tubes, with lignified side walls and no end walls, that transport water in most plants.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Resistance to disease resulting from the actives of an individual's own immune system whereby an antigen induces plasma cells to produce antibodies.

Back

Active Immunity

Card 3

Front

A group of amino acids that make up the region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits in order to catalyst a reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Movement of a substance from a region of where it is in a low concentration to a region where it is in a high concentration. The process requires the expenditure of metabolic energy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Connected with the presence of free oxygen. Aerobic respiration requires free oxygen to release energy from glucose.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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