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Glossary of Biology terms



abscission layer
a layer of easily-ruptured tissue in a leaf
stalk which causes leaves to drop in the
autumn

Adaptive radiation
divergent evolution caused by the adapting
of populations to new conditions, not
experienced by previous generations; see
also divergent evolution

ADH
anti-diuretic hormone, released by…

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flowering plants

antibodies
proteins synthesised in response to foreign
antigens

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
the hormone released by the pituitary gland
to cause increased water retention by
kidney nephrons

antigens
any substances that cause the immune
system to produce antibodies. They may be
foreign or made within the body

antimicrobial proteins…

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relating to reponses of the whole organism
to its environment

budding
producing new cels by mitosis as "buds"
forming on the "parent" cell, eg. in Yeast

calcicoles
plants which prefer calcium-rich soil

calcifuges
plants which avoid calcium-rich soil

callus
a group dividing cells which may develop
into a new plant…

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clones
groups of genetically identical individuals
produced from one parent by mitosis,
perhaps using micropropagation

codon
a triplet of exposed bases on a length of
mRNA

Cohesion
forces which cause molecules to stick to
one another

compensation point
any point at which photosynthetic rate and
rate of respiration exactly balance…

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removal

Deletion mutation
loss of a section of DNA or a number of
nucleotides

different phenotypes
varying expression of genes

diffusion
movement of chemicals other than water
from high to low concentration through a
semi permeable membrane

Divergent evolution
separation of populations as they adapt to
varying conditions as demonstrated…

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the position of an organism in the food web

ectotherms
animals whose body temperature is largely
dependent on external ambient temperature

effector
cells, muscles or glands which perform
responses to stimuli

effector cells
any muscle cell or gland cell that performs a
response to a stimulus

embryo
the early stages…

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molecules which combine with glycerol to
make fats

filter feeding
the use of a syphon effect to suck plankton
or bacteria into specialised feeders such as
some molluscs

fitness
ability to survive

Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a condition causing mental and physical
retardation of children of mothers who are
alcoholic…

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distance or mountainous regions which
prevent populations meeting

gibberellic acid (GA)
a plant growth substance which promotes
cell elongation and causes production of
amylase in germinating seeds

glomeruli
knots of tiny blood capillaries found in the
Bowman's capsules of nephrons

glucose
a six carbon sugar which is the product of…

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Henle
the loop of Henle is a part of the nephron
which folds back on itself allowing a
countercurrent exchange system between
the two portions which lie parallel to one
another

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a virus which disrupts the immune system
by invading white blood cells

hybrid plants
plants…

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genetic mutations leading to the failure of
stages in metabolic pathways

indicator species
a species indicative of certain
environmental conditions such as lack of
sulphur dioxide, or presence of sewage

indole acetic acid (IAA)
a plant growth substance which promotes
fruit formation, cell production and cell
elongation. The effects at…

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