glossary

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Glossary of Biology terms
abscission layer
a layer of easily-ruptured tissue in a leaf
stalk which causes leaves to drop in the
autumn
Adaptive radiation
divergent evolution caused by the adapting
of populations to new conditions, not
experienced by previous generations; see
also divergent evolution
ADH
anti-diuretic hormone, released by the
pituitary gland to cause increased water
retention by kidney nephrons
Adhesion
forces which cause molecules to adhere to
plant surfaces such as xylem vessels
adrenaline
a hormone or chemical messenger which
stimulates the nervous system and
metabolism especially in times of stress
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
reduced immunity caused by infection with
HIV
aleurone layer
a layer under the epidermis of a barley seed
which can produce amylase under the
control of GA
allele frequency
preponderance of alternative versions of
genes
Amino acids
the basic units of proteins. They consist of
the elements C, H, O and N
Angiosperms

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ADH)
the hormone released by the pituitary gland
to cause increased water retention by
kidney nephrons
antigens
any substances that cause the immune
system to produce antibodies.…read more

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Yeast
calcicoles
plants which prefer calcium-rich soil
calcifuges
plants which avoid calcium-rich soil
callus
a group dividing cells which may develop
into a new plant
cambium
(plural: cambia) a region of mitosis
capsid
the outer part of a virus
captive breeding
the use of zoos or reserves to allow
captured organisms to produce offspring
under protected conditions
carbon fixation
combination of carbon with hydrogen in the
second phase of photosynthesis
Cell banks
laboratory preserved reserves of cells
cellulase
an enzyme which digests cellulose sugar
characteristic…read more

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RNA
Cohesion
forces which cause molecules to stick to
one another
compensation point
any point at which photosynthetic rate and
rate of respiration exactly balance one
another out, usually once in the morning as
photosynthesis speeds up and once in the
early evening as phtosynthesis is retarded
by lack of light and heat
Competition
the need for the same resources
continental drift
the gradual moving apart of continents due
to plate tectonics
convergent evolution
the evolution of similar adaptive features in
unrelated groups of organisms…read more

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Deletion mutation
loss of a section of DNA or a number of
nucleotides
different phenotypes
varying expression of genes
diffusion
movement of chemicals other than water
from high to low concentration through a
semi permeable membrane
Divergent evolution
separation of populations as they adapt to
varying conditions as demonstrated by
pedigrees showing the relationships among
various species; see also adaptive radiation
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule which
makes up genes and chromosomes.…read more

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These are the birds
and mammals.…read more

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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
a condition causing mental and physical
retardation of children of mothers who are
alcoholic
Foraging
systematic searching for food, such as when
an animal "quarters" a field
function
job
Galls
areas of plant tissue which isolate damaged
areas or parasitic organisms
gene pool
population of genotypes available for
mixing through mating
genetic code
the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA
molecule determines the sequence on
mRNA and this codes for the sequence of
amino acids in a protein
Genetic engineering
the…read more

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GA)
a plant growth substance which promotes
cell elongation and causes production of
amylase in germinating seeds
glomeruli
knots of tiny blood capillaries found in the
Bowman's capsules of nephrons
glucose
a six carbon sugar which is the product of
photosynthesis and the substrate of
respiration
glycogen
the storage product formed by the action of
insulin on glucose
glycolysis
the breakdown of glucose (sugar) into 2
molecules of pyruvic acid
grazer
an animal which spends many hours feeding
on plants
growth curve
a graph showing…read more

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Henle
the loop of Henle is a part of the nephron
which folds back on itself allowing a
countercurrent exchange system between
the two portions which lie parallel to one
another
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a virus which disrupts the immune system
by invading white blood cells
hybrid plants
plants produced using genes of different
varieties or species
hydrogen carriers
molecules such as NAD which easily bind to
Hydrogen when available
Hydrophytes
plants adapted to live in wet conditions
such as in ponds
hypertonic
solution…read more

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IAA)
a plant growth substance which promotes
fruit formation, cell production and cell
elongation. The effects at root and shoot
vary at the same concentration. It also
inhibits leaf abscission.…read more

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