Autocracy and Revolt in Russia

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  • Created on: 27-05-16 16:55

Paper 1 : Autocracy and Revolt in Russia, 1881 - 1914

The Reign of Alexander III

The Reign of Alexander III

  • Became Tsar after Alexander II's assassination in 1881.
  • Cancels father's plans to introduce a representative assembly and had no intention to limiting his autocratic prowess.
  • During his reign, Russia was not involved in any wars.
    • Because of this, he was dubbed peacemaker of Russia.
  • He was much more conservative - he believed autocracy was better than democracy. 
  • Reversed all of his father's reforms.
  • Impact of his father's death made him
    - reverse his father's reforms, realised it did not work since his father was assassinated due to      population discontent.
    - blame the Jews for his father's assassination.
    - believed that autocracy was better than democracy.

Main policies on...
All policies = 
Impact of the assassination of Alexander II. 
Alexander III, Pobedonostsev and reaction. 
Restoration of autocracy, censorship, and the policy of Russification.

1. Autocracy

  • Tsar took repressive measures to uphold his autocratic rule.
    • Tsar passed the Temporary Regulations to deal with the "Will of The People."
    • populists, professional revolutionaries, supporter of political struggle against the autocratic rule. 
    • Anybody who threatened public order were arrested by police. (harsh security measures)
    • As a result :
      - It eliminates political opposition. (only a few revolutionaries remain)
      - Terrorism and "Will of The People" died down.
  • In 1884, Tsar passed a new University Statue.
    • This statue abolished university autonomy and banned students' political activities.
    • Secondary schools were "advised" to give more attention to teaching of classical languages. 
    • Raised tuition fees. This made is difficult for lower classes to obtain education.
    • Working class and peasant children were forbidden to study in secondary schools.
      • This meant that only the upper class could be educated further than the core education. 
      • This would then expand the gap between the rich and the poor that already exists in Russia.
      • Increased Russia's illiteracy go up to 79%.
    • Severe restrictions and censorship of press.
    •  
  • Introduction of the "Land Commandants"
    • Had to be of the local nobility. - nobility overruled the zemstva.
      • Reduced urban assemblies.
    • They held a wide authority over the peasant communities.
    • "Justices of Peace" were transferred to them.
    • Exercised (omnipotent - meaning having unlimited powers.) administrative and judicial authority in the Russian countryside.  (such as increasing tax for zemstva)
    • Local officials feared the Land Commandants because they could be dismissed by them.
    • Zemstva powers were limited. (due to fear and social hierarchy)
    • The Land Commandant encourages the idea of a social hierarchy. It represents the upper-class/nobilities as richer and of higher rank.
    • As a result :
      - Peasant delegates and westernised intellectuals were reduced.
      - Representation of nobles were increased.
      - Land captains were automatically members of the zemstva.
      - Zemstva decisions were subject to review by the provincial governors and the minister of the interior. (no authority)
      - In 1892, the municipal government also raised property requirement in order to limit the right to vote of the radical intellectuals and the lower classes.

2. Russification

  • He believes strongly in

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