History IGCSE, Germany Development of Dictatorship and Russia

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Development of Dictatorship, Germany 1918-45
The Weimar Republic 1918-1929
The German Revolution
Failure of WWI
Allied Navies blockaded the German coast (Deprived of basic goods)
Food shortages
Deadly influenza spread since August 1918
Military failure caused a loss in morale
29th October 1918, mutiny spread at the naval base at Kiel
Revolts and demonstrations spread throughout the country (inspired by the Russian Revolution)
Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9th November and fled to Holland.
The Social Democratic Party (SPD) formed a new government, Fredich Ebert, became chancellor.
Armistice was signed in November 1918
Unrest and political turmoil all around Germany
Armed Extreme Groups such as the KPD, Frei Korps rose up
The New Constitution
More democratic, all men and women over 20 could vote, general election every four years
Power was always shared or balanced between two groups or people, such as the Reichstag
and the Reichstrat or the president and the chancellor.
Fredeict Ebert, president of the constitution gained support of the powerful groups in society,
such as the German Army, by promising General Groner there would be no reform in the armed
forces, reassuring industrialists that there would be no nationalization of businesses, and by
ensuring his support to the leader of trade unions, promising working standards
Proportional representation made it difficult to find solutions that please everyone; coalitions
were needed to get majority support.
Balancing of two powers made the government unstable in times of crisis.
Extremist Parties didn't support it; Germans feared it was too weak.

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Treaty of Versailles
Reparations of 6600 million pounds were needed to be paid to the Allies.
Germany lost its 11 colonies and was given to the victorious countries as mandates.
German Military forces and navy were limited and could be only used internally, no air force was
allowed, Rhineland was demilitarized.
It lost 13% of European territory and half its iron and 15% of its coal reserves.…read more

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Farmers profited from the rising food prices
Some business could pay off their loans and buy small failing business for cheaply.
However, everyone suffered from shortages, as marks become worthless foreign suppliers
rejected marks for goods, increasing shortages.
Savings in bank accounts, insurance policies or pensions became worthless; this mainly affected
the middle class.
Political Problems
Left Wing (E.g.…read more

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The Stresemann Era
In September 1923, new chancellor Gustav Stresemann cancelled the old mark and introduced a new
currency called the Rentenmark. This led to a period of stability.…read more

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Hitler's role
A great orator who attracted supporters from the army, the police and small businessmen at
meetings, membership rapidly grew to 3000 during 1920.
With their increased membership this boosted funds enough to buy a newspaper to spread their
ideologies.…read more

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In the short term, this was a failure and humiliating for Hitler, as the NSDAP was banned and he was
defeated however there were some beneficial long term effects.
Hitler used his trial as national publicity to portray his views
The ban on the NSDAP was weakly enforced and as a result of the publicity, it lifted in 1925,
winning 32 seats in the 1924 in the Reichstag.…read more

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Middle class-as the Depression lost their companies, savings or pensions, they saw Hitler as the
solution who could recover Germany, they feared the communist party KPD who would abolish
private ownership, and they appreciated the traditional moral values that the Nazis represented.…read more

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Hitler hoped for more Nazi seats in Reichstag, and called for an election, to help his campaign he;
Raised millions of mark from rich businessmen
Used a decree to imprison his political opponents
Used the SA to attack his political rivals
The election resulted into 70 deaths and increased Nazi Reichstag members to 288.…read more

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As Fuhrer he would have all the president's power as well as those he had as chancellor
He forced an oath of loyalty from every army solider
The Nazi Police State
Nazi Germany was a police state where the government used the police to control people's lives and
suppress any opposing views; Hitler's control was exerted over the SS and the Gestapo.…read more

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Nazis and Christianity
Christianity was suppressed in the Nazi police state, as Christianity preached tolerance and peace and
Nazism glorified racial superiority and violence.…read more


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