The 1905 Revolution

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  • Created by: iamme
  • Created on: 03-06-16 15:23

Paper 1 : Autocracy and Revolt in Russia, 1881 - 1914

The 1905 Revolution

RUSSO - JAPANESE WAR

  • Russo-Japanese War Failure.
    • Nicholas II thought that the war as a victory in a short war would stop people criticising his government.
    • War made conditions worse.
      • Prices rose in cities.
      • Caused shortages of food and other goods.
      • Lack of industrial materials caused factories to close down.
      • Increased rate of unemployment and hungry.
    • As the war progressed, Russia was plunged deeper and deeper into crisis. 
      • 1905, Port Arthur fell to the Japanese, bringing renewed protest about the incompetence of the Tsar and the Government. 
    • This soon led to working class, the peasants and middle class, liberals joining together in the 1905 revolution.
    • Humiliating for Russia as Japan was such a small country.
  • Major Battles
    • Russian Navy fought 2 major battles to relieve Port Arthur.
      • Liaoyang and Sha Ho.
    • Russians were defeated and surrendered.
    • 2nd January 1905, Japanese captured Port Arthur.
      • Russian Army suffered 90,000 casualties in its failed attempt to Mukden.
    • In May 1905, Russian Navy was attacked at Tsushima, Naval Battle in Japan.
      • 20 ships sunk.
      • 5 ships captured.
      • Only 4 ships managed to reach safety at Vladivostok.
    • Sergei Witte led the Russian delegation at the peace conference held in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in August 1905.
      • Treaty of Portsmouth
        • Liaotung Peninsula and the South Manchurian Railway went to Japan.
        • Island of Sakhalin was divided into two.
        • The Nothern Manchurian Highway and Chinese Eastern Railway remained under Russian control.
  • Casualties
    • 80,000 Japan army casualties.
    • 130,000 Russian men dead.
    • China suffered 20,000 civillian deaths.
    • China financially lost 69 million taels.
    • Unknown number of soldiers dead at sea, no agreed consensus soldiers at sea.
      • Many ships denied rescuing casualties that were left shipwrecked.
      • This led to Geneva Convention in 1906, gave protection and care to the shipwrecked soldiers.
  • Major results :
    • Japan's prestige rose greatly as it is now seen as a modern nation.
    • Russia lost virtually its entire Pacific and Baltic fleets as well as international esteem.
    • Russia was France and Serbia's ally, that loss of prestige had a significant effect on Germany's future when planning to war with France and Austria-Hungary's war with Serbia.
    • Russian military capabilities in World War One was underestimated.
  • Reason why Russia lost :
    • Lack of technology.
    • Underestimation of Japan as it is an "Asian" country.
    • Lack of Russian's infrastructure.
    • Unable to supply troops because industry was so backwards.
    • Geographically difficult to manipulate army troops around.

FATHER GAPON AND BLOODY SUNDAY (JANUARY 1905)

  • Father Gapon and the workers of Petrograd were faced with problems when working.
    • Workers wanted reduced shift at factories to 8 hours, increasing in wages as well as sanitary improvements in working areas.
    • Dirty working areas has known to cause diseases which workers succumb to.
  • As a result, Father

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