The Romanov dynasty had lasted 300 years but Nicholas II, who ascended the throne in 1894, turned out to be the last Tsar of Russia. How did such an ancient monarchy collapse so spectacularly?
February or March - October or November? The Russian calendar was 13 days behind the rest of the world, so its February Revolution actually took place in March, and what was called the October Revolution happened in November!
This fact, of course, gives a clue as to why the Romanov dynasty fell in 1917 - it was out of date. In comparison, Italy and Spain had modernised their calendars in 1582!
All the institutions that supported the monarchy - such as the Church, the nobility and the faithful loyalty of the peasants - came from the Middle Ages.
Meanwhile, new, modern forces were threatening the monarchy such as the middle class, an industrial working class and Marxism.
In 1894, Nicholas II was an autocrat. He ruled alone and unquestioned, but he had a weak personality, and his power was increasingly based on the military might…