AS BRITISH POLITICAL HISTORY EDEXCEL 1945-90

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AS BRITISH POLITICAL HISTORY

 

Labour victory 1945

(FPTP system)

 Labour - 12 million votes

Conservatives 10 million votes

Lib Dems 2 million votes

 

Why conservatives lost:

1.     Churchill’s popularity – did not carry on after war – associated with 1930’s DEPRESSION (failed to prevent war) – he was relied on too heavily – needed SOCIAL REFORM instead

2.     Britain needed (and deserved) social and economic RECONSTRUCTION – Conservative’s couldn’t provide

3.     Churchill’s poor electioneering: Gestapo Speech – didn’t realize how POPULAR Labour were – (they were in tune with Zeitgeist image)

4.     Wartime PROPAGANDA and FILMS based on acting TOGETHER to build a BETTER NATION – coincided with Labour ideals (not intentional) – Labour’s BEVERIDGE REPORT was attractive

 

Bevin Foreign Secretary 1945-1950

Cripps – Very intelligent, pro communist, Chancellor of Exchequer 1947

Morrison – Deputy Prime Minister 1945-51

Bevan Created NHS 1948

Attlee – Leader of Labour 1935-55 (bad public speaker)

Dalton – Minister of Economic Warfare under Churchill

 

Attlee

 

Helped ORDINARY PEOPLE making changes in DEMANDING DOMESTIC international CRISIS

-       Nationalisation

-       Welfare State

-       NATO

-       Indian Independence

 

He believed a good Prime Minister should know when to ask for opinion, to get a general feeling, then do it.

 

5 GIANTS

-       June 1941 - Interdepartmental committee set up to study existing schemes of social insurance and improve them

-       William Beveridge as Chairman – took very seriously

-       Aimed to abolish material want

-       Universal scheme of insurance – sickness, injury, unemployment

-       Grant to ease maternity, bereavement, parenthood

-       ‘CRADLE TO THE GRAVE’

-       WANT – ended by national insurance

-       DISEASE – ended by Comprehensive health service

-       IGNORANCE – ended by effective education system

-       SQUALOR – ended by slum clearance and re-housing

-       IDLENESS – ended by full employment

-       Beveridge = CONTINUATION AND CAPITALISM

 

Labours welfare programme

 

-       Accepted by all = monumental effort

-       Ground made by principle of collectivism

-       Report = blueprint for social reconstruction

o      ‘People deserved a reward’ = MOTTO

 

July 1948 4 major measures

-       National Insurance – tax to help maternity, illness etc.

-       National Injuries – cover accidents in workplace

-       National Assistance – deals with hardship and poverty

-       National Health Service – free medical treatment

 

1944 – Education Act – Butlers 11+ exams, free education

1945 – Family Allowance Act – Weekly payment for every child after the first

1945 – Manifesto let us face the future

1946 – Nationalised coal; civil aviation; the Bank of England; cable and wireless

1947 – Nationalised road transport and electricity

1948 – Nationalised gas

1949 – Nationalised iron and steel

1949 – Parliamentary Reform Act prevented Conservatives (who had majority I

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