COMPLETE COLD WAR REVISION NOTES.
UNIT 1: SEEDS OF CONFLICT.
Definition of the word ‘Cold War’: Between USA and USSR, involving economic measures, non-cooperation, propaganda, but NO DIRECT FIGHTING BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. There were, however, wars fought in other countries between capitalist and communist forces aided by the superpowers.
1917: Bolshevik Revolution. Government established that saw communism as its ‘guiding principle’.
Viewed by rest of the world as a ’highly destabilising force that threatened social and political order’
Key points of communism: State-owned economy, one-party state, a classless society, government control.
Key points of capitalism: LIBERAL DEMOCRACY. i.e. freedom of speech, vote, worship and press.
- Wilson Liberalism (1918)
SELF DETERMINATION-decide own government
OPEN MARKETS- no trade barriers or spheres of influence.
COLLECTIVE SECURITY- a world peace-keeping organisation
Points of tension between USSR and USA during WWII.
- Appeasement. Britain negotiated with Hitler and failed to prevent the outbreak of war, at the USSR’s expense.
- Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939.
- Soviet purges 36-39
The Grand Alliance.
Britain, USA and USSR. Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin. Met in Teheran, November 1943. Strains included:
- The opening up of a second front against Germany, Stalin had called for aid since 1941 to relieve the pressure on the eastern front, but USA and Britain were reluctant until 1944.
- Poland. Stalin wanted to establish his own communist-friendly government instead of the exiled one based in London. There were also disputes over borders.
Impact of WWII on world relations.
- Left a ‘power vacuum’ in Eastern Europe.
- By 1944, the seeds were firmly in place of a conflict which had been possible since 1917.
- WWII forced USA and USSR onto a world stage.
- Both were willing and able to enforce their ideas on a European, if not global scale.
UNIT 2: HOW DID THE COLD WAR DEVELOP?
Attitudes of the main powers in 1945:
Stalin: Safeguard and rebuild Soviet Union- Had lost 20million in WWII. European policies reflect this i.e. ‘buffer zones’. Wanted reimbursement equal to losses.
Truman: April 1945. From compromise to containment.
‘Iron Fist’ ‘Long Telegram’ etc. Had to promote freedom and did not understand Soviet obsession with security.
Atlee: Not the slightest bit sympathetic towards communism.
Stages of Diplomatic breakdown.
1: Yalta conference 4-11 Feb1945
- Poland government disputes.
- Agreements reached e.g. division of Germany, UN, free elections in E Europe.
2: Potsdam conference July 1945
- Cooling relations
- Truman and Atlee instead of Roosevelt and Churchill
- Annoyed with Soviet interference in Eastern Europe
3: Russian influence in Eastern Europe 1945-47
- Power Vaccum after collapse of Nazis regime
- 2 million red soldiers were still in Europe by 1948.
- Pro-communist governments set up in all states except Czechoslovakia by 1947
4: Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech, March…