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Superpower Geographies
Attributes of a superpower

o Physical size and location
Larger countries tend to have more resources
Neighbouring countries have influence
E.g. Russia is the largest country

o Resources
Critical for economic development
However, some developing country's' resources are `owned' by TNCs
in wealthier countries- e.g. oil in Nigeria…

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o USSR, (who also owned controlled Poland, E. Germany, Czechoslovakia,
Hungary...)
o Vietnam
o Somalia

Current communist countries: China (ish)

How did they become superpowers?

USSR

- Industrial strength
- 2nd largest economy
- Military strength
- Harsh authoritarian regime to increase economic production

USA

-World's largest economy
- Had…

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IMF prevented communism spreading

o Gave loans to countries suffering after WW2
o Stop the countries going to communism
o Created capitalist societies

How successful in Singapore?

o Very successful- rapid recovery of economy
o Became one of the `Asian Tigers'

How successful in Japan?

o Rapid recovery of economy…

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Why did the British Empire slowly decline?

After WW2, UK became bankrupt and unable to support the Empire
Anti- Colonial movements grew
Majority of colonies independent by 1970


China- new superpower?

China is growing at 6-7% (2012) and exerting a powerful influence upon the
global economy. Significant impact upon America,…

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Manufacturing

USA rely on China to produce
Pearl River Delta is main area for manufacturing, with 18 million people
working

Special Economic Zone (SEZ)

Established May 1980
Shenzhen- main zone due to proximity to Hong Kong
90% of workers are migrants
4th largest GDP in China

Successful reforms?

Economic reform…

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Russia as a super power again?

Resources
Significant reserves of oil and gas adding to global power
Developed export partnerships to the east and west
Russia depends on Europe buying 80% of oil exports, but USA is
a keen buyer and China's demand for oil is growing
Power explained when:…

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Theory views the world as having an economically developed
core and an underdeveloped periphery
Model views the periphery as being kept dependent on the core,
thus continuing its state of underdevelopment
Capitalist core keeps the periphery in a state of
underdevelopment by exploiting cheap resources and taking its
most skilled…

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Political influence- influence in international relations at the IMF, UN,
WTO, G8 etc.
Economic wealth and power, possibly a result of trade and the wealth
this brings- related to trade blocs or TNCs
Power can also be seen as stemming from research and development,
new technology, patents and royalties. Also…

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Commodity Traders Commodity traders in London
and New York decide the price
of cocoa and buy for large
companies (Cadbury's)
Buyers trade in future markets
for best price
Other countries also produce
cocoa, so buyers will go to the
cheapest place
Price fluctuates impacting
exporting countries and their
workers
Dependency…

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NATO- political
Military alliance between European countries and USA

IMF- economic
Monitors economic and financial development of countries
Lends money when countries are facing financial difficulties

G8- political and economic
Forum of world's richest and most powerful nations
Meetings about global policy directions western democracies should
take

WTO- economic
Trade…

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