AS Psychology Unit 1: Developmental Psychology - Attachment Sample Exam Questions And Answers
Developmental Psychology - Attachment Exam Questions And Answers:
1. Mary has noticed that her young baby does things to attract her attention, such as babbling, smiling and crying.
How does the evolutionary perspective on attachment explain these behaviours? (4 marks)
Ans). The baby is displaying instinctive signalling behaviours. Things like crying and smiling are social releasers which encourage the mother to care for the infant. This is important for the infant because without the care and attention of a caregiver during the early years it would not survive. Forming an attachment gives newborn infants a survival advantage over those that do not.
2. You have been invited to give a talk to the local mother-and-baby group. Using ideas from Bowlby's theory of attachment, what advice might you give the mothers about how they could form a strong mother-child bond? (4 marks)
Ans). Bowlby said that an infant must form an attachment to one main caregiver, usually the mother. Care needs to be consistent, meaning that she needs to ensure that she does not do anything to disrupt the attachment, for example by leaving the child in the care of someone else. The mother also has to give responsive and sensitive care for a successful attachment to develop. This means that the mother needs to respond appropriately to social releasers.
3. Marion provides most of the care for her son, Joseph - feeding, comforting and playing with him. She has noticed that, whilst he is happy to spend time with his dad, Joseph seems most content when he is with her.
Use you knowledge of the learning theory of attachment to explain Joseph's behaviour. (4 marks)
Ans). Because Marion is providing the main care for he son, Joseph has associated his mum with the satisfaction of primary drives, such as hunger and thirst. She has also become associated with other pleasurable things, such as comfort and security. This learning is called classical conditioning. Whilst dad provides care, it is Marion who is more strongly associated with need satisfaction. Therefore, Joseph prefers her company.
4. Andrea has noticed that her two sons are quite different. When she gets home from work the first thing Sam does is run to her and give her a great big hug, whilst she has to go to find Rob to make sure he is okay. When a plumber came to the house the other day Sam was fine with him, but Rob wouldn't stop crying and appeared scared.
(i) The type of attachment shown by Rob. (1 mark)
(ii) The type of attachment shown by Sam. (1 mark)
(b) Explain how the type of attachment shown by each child could be assessed. (4 marks)
Ans). The Strange Situation could be used. This is a standardised test which takes place in a laboratory setting. It is a sequence of three minute episodes involving the child, mother and a…