AS psychology, AQA, Unit 1

The document includes the whole material for Unit 1 in AQA psychology, summarised in 36 pages. It is the same order as in the specification and the Word document allows you to add or delete things that will make it more suitable for you. In general is good template for what you need to know. I apologise in advance for the spelling mistakes in the document, I fixed them as much as I could, however, what ever you don't like, feel free to correct. 

The materials used:

1. Exam revision notes, AQA (AS) Psychology by Jean-Marc Lawton

2. AS psychology (AQA) by Mike Cardwell and Cara Flanagan - second and third edition

3. AS psychology A (AQA) by Nelson Thornes

4. www.psychteacher.co.uk

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  • Created by: Mariya
  • Created on: 11-12-12 23:56
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Cognitive psychology
The nature of memory
Memory at its most basic consists of 3 important stores (sensory memory, short term memory and long term
memory) and 3 important processes (encoding, storage and retrieval).
1. Encoding ­ the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Information…

Page 2

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this by changing his procedure slightly. He trained participants to distinguish between three tones, which he played
after the exposure of letters. He then exposed the chart for the same amount of time (50 milliseconds) but, this time
played different tone as soon as the chart had disappeared. Participants were…

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MSM provides good frame work to understand how memory works, and act as a base for further researches. Also,
there are many evidence to support the existence of distinct memory stores:
1. Serial position effect ­ Glanzer and Cunitz gave participants list of 20 words, and asked them to recall…

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Baddeley and Hitch developed the working memory model as they did not agreed that STM is as simplistic as the
multistore model represented it, i.e. consisted of number of different stores rather than being a single one.
To test the idea that there is more than one component in STM,…

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pressing numbered keys, which is difficult because you have to avoid some kind of pattern emerging. The task was
carried out on its own or simultaneously with one of the following:
Reciting the alphabet
Counting from 1
Alternating between letters and numbers (i.e. A1, B1, C3, D4, E5, F6 etc.)…

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2. The concept of the `central executive' is the most important, but it has reminded vague. It is also thought to have
limited capacity, which has not been quantified.
It may be that there are more components rather than single central executive, e.g. a patient who, after the removal
of…

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would have been above the optimal level.
Research support for this theory and its relevance to eyewitness testimony can be found in a field experiment carried o
by Peters (1988) using participants who were visiting a health centre for routine injections. On arrival at the health cent
participants met a…

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Encoding:
Ceci and Bruck theorise that one reason why children may be inaccurate in providing EWT is their lack of appropria
schema for the witnessed scene. This makes it difficult for them to encode the event accurately. However, Ceci and
Bruck acknowledged that there are times when a child can…

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The term `leading question' refers to a question that is worded in such a way that it might bias a respondent`s
answer.
Research undertaken by Loftus and Palmer showed that participants' recall is influenced by the questions they are
asked. They showed participants a film of a car accident and…

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Although much more information was recalled in the interview, error ratings were very similar. However, as this was
an artificial situation, the study can be faulted for its validity.
Fisher studied real interviews by experienced detective officers in Florida over a fourmonth period. They found that
witnesses were frequently bombarded…

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