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Cognitive…read more

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Miller (1956)
Capacity of STM
Aim: To find the capacity of the STM in the WMM
Findings: The STM can hold 7 pieces of information, plus or minus two. The STM can
be considerably increased by combining/organising separate bits of information
(chunking) which makes it more meaningful and organises it with information that
already exists in your LTM
Evaluation:…read more

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Baddeley (1966)
Semantic coding in LTM
Aim: To explore the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in STM and LTM
Method: In the STM study PP were asked immediately after presentation to recall, in
serial order, a list of five words taken from a pool of words in these categories:
acoustically similar words (man, mad, map), acoustically dissimilar words (pen,
day, few), semantically similar words (great, big, large), and semantically dissimilar
words (hot, old, late). In the LTM study each list of words was extended to ten and
recall was tested after 20 minutes.
Findings: Words with similar sounds were much harder to recall using STM than words
with dissimilar sounds. Similarity of meaning only had a very slight detrimental
effect on STM. When PP were recalling from the LTM, recall was much worse for
semantically similar words then for semantically dissimilar words. Recall from LTM
was the same for acoustically similar and acoustically dissimilar words.
Conclusion: STM relies heavily on acoustic encoding. LTM primarily makes use of
semantic encoding
Evaluation: Labatory experiment means low ecological validity however also means a
high level of control over extraneous variables…read more

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Conrad (1964)
Acoustic coding in STM
Aim: To find out if the STM encodes information acoustically
Method: Compared acoustically and visually presented data. Presented PP with 6
letters at a time, displaying them for 0.75 seconds. The PP had to recall the letters
in the order that they were presented
Findings: When the letters sounded alike, even though they were visually presented,
errors were made in terms of sounds confusions, for example, S was recalled
instead of X
Conclusion: The STM does encode information acoustically
Evaluation: In later research, Posner (1969) demonstrated that visual codes fo in fact
exist is STM at least some of the time…read more

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Peterson & Peterson (1959)
Duration of STM
Aim: To find the duration of the STM in the WMM
Method: A lab experiment in which 24 PP had to recall trigrams. To prevent rehearsal
PP were asked to count backwards in threes or fours from a specified number until
a red light appeared (brown peterson technique)
Findings: The longer the interval delay the less trigrams were recalled. 80% of the
letters were remembered after 3 seconds, less than 10% were remembered after
18 seconds
Conclusions: STM has a limited duration when rehearsal is prevented. Also STM is
different from LTM in terms of duration
Evaluation: Low ecological validity as people do not try to recall trigrams in real life…read more

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