AQA A2 Geography World Cities

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Urbanisation

·       Millionaire City – Urban area with over a million people living there e.g. Budapest in Hungary. More than 400. In past found in developed world, increasingly found in developing world.

·       Mega City – Urban area with over 10 million people living there e.g. Mumbai in India.  More than 20. Two thirds in developing cities.

o   Hubs of business, transport and trade – New York + Mumbai + London (LHR 73.4m arrive and depart daily.)

o   Political Hubs – Brussels (HQ for EU and NATO).  

o   Migration Hubs – Sydney (55000 indigenous heritage) + Melbourne (60% born here)

o   Production Hubs – Abu Dhabi (Film Makers – Bollywood. $2.5bn in infrastructure equip.)

o   Cultural Hubs – Paris (24 Museums – Second Largest. 45% visit annually).

·       World City – City that has an influence over the whole world. They are centres for trade, business, culture and science. E.g. London, New York and Tokyo. Tend to be in developed countries. Over time likely to be in developing cities in China and India.

 

·       Urbanisation – Growth of proportion of a counties population that lives in urban areas.

·       Suburbanisation – Movement of people from city centre to outskirts. (Eventually Agglomeration – joining together). Must allow access to city for commuters for this to happen. 

·       Counter-urbanisation – Movement of people from cities to rural areas.

·       Re-urbanisation – Movement of people back to city centre.

These happen one after the other as country develops – cycle of urbanisation. In many cities all processes happen at same time but in different parts.

Urbanisation mainly caused by Rural-Urban Migration and naturally increasing population:

·       People migrate to cities = increase urban population. Migrants normally young people looking for work. Have children – further increase population.

·       Rural-urban migration takes place due to push and pull factors.

o   Push – Push people away from rural area – linked to poverty.

o   Pull – Attract people to city.

·       Currently taking place in many developing countries.

Push Factors

Pull Factors

·       Human activity + climate change = desertification. Land unproductive not enough food.

·       Farmers - loans to improve yields (buy fertiliser etc). Crops fail can’t pay back loans – lose land.

·       Conflict/Civil War – flee homes.

·       Natural disasters – can’t afford to rebuild.

·       Changes in land use can drive people out. E.g. farmland flooded for HEP.

·       Mechanism of agriculture – fewer jobs.

·       Persecution – Religion, political ideology.

·       More jobs in urban areas.

·       Better paid jobs.

·       Better access to health and education.

·       Family may already move.

·       Perception of better QofL in city.

Mumbai Urbanisation Case Study

INFRASTRUCTURE IS RUDIMENTARY!

·       Mega city on the west coast of India. It has a major port on the Indian Ocean and is India’s financial

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