AQA Geography - Environment and population

Where is the most densely populated city in the world?
Dhaka, Bangladesh. More than 44,500 people per km².
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Where is the least populated place on earth?
Greenland Population density of 0.0 people per km²
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Demographic Transition Model
) is based on historical population trends of two demographic characteristics – birth rate and death rate – to suggest that a country's total population growth rate cycles through stages as that country develops economically.
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Stage 1
High BR due to lack of family planning High infant mortality encourages more births High DR due to disease and lack of hygiene E.g. remote groups, e.g. uncontacted Amazon tribe
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Stage 2
High birth rate Death rate falls (e.g. healthcare, hygiene) Population increases E.g. Angola/ Afghanistan
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Stage 3
Lower birth rates due to socio-economic conditions Death rates continue to fall E.g. India/ Brazil
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Stage 4
Low birth and death rates Population levels are still high E.g. UK/ USA
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Stage 5
Birth rates fall even higher – higher aspirations? Death rate stable or increases due to aging population E.g. Japan/ Germany
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DTM positives
There are no set timescales and so there are no expectations for a country to pass through in a certain time. Easy to understand Simple to draw comparisons
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DTM negatives
Some countries have taken political decisions to manage population (e.g. China) Knowledge about disease prevention has improved – Sweden took 200 years for DR to fall, Mexico only took 70 Model assumes just one direction – countries can regress
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measure human populations
Birth rates, fertility rates, death rates, infant mortality and life expectancy all measure human populations Each of these measures changes over time and is influenced by a countries level of development
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How much is healthy adult food consumption?
A healthy adult should be consuming between 2000-2500kcal per day
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not having enough food to develop or function normally.
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when your body mass index is greater than or equal to 30
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Inadequately balanced diet whether through undernutrition or over nutrition (obesity)
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Where is Undernourishment found?
The majority of the population suffering from undernourishment live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
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Where is food produced?
Europe, North America and Australasia have enough farmland to provide the food they need, with significant surpluses to export.
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LICs food production
In contrast, half of all LICs lack sufficient farmland and technology to be self-sufficient and are too poor to import.
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How much food is wasted worldwide?
one-third of food produced worldwide is still wasted.
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Given our food,how many calories can everyone theoretically consume a day?
increases in agricultural production have meant that the world produces enough food to provide 2800 calories/person/day
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How is Agriculture an open system?
Inputs include physical, human and economic factors that determine the type of farming in an area Processes are the activities carried out to turn inputs to outputs (depend on level of tech available) Outputs are the products from the farm
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The growing of crops / rearing of livestock to make a profit. Common in most countries
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Where there is just sufficient food produced to provide for the farmer's own family
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Involves the growing of crops
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Involves the rearing of livestock
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Involves a combination of arable and pastoral farming
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Where the farm size is small in comparison with the large amount of labour, and inputs of capital, fertilisers etc. which are required.
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Where the size of a farm is very large in comparison to the inputs of money, labour etc.. Needed
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Involves the large corporate organisation of farming- often farms are run for profit maximisation and economy of scale.
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Two contrasting climates
Tropical monsoon climate and The polar tundra climate
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Tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C in every month of the year and feature wet and dry seasons.
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The polar tundra climate
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers. Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C. Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. The sun shines for long hours in the sum
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Tropical monsoon climate location
Over half of the world’s population live in over 21 Asian countries affected by seasonal monsoon winds. This includes 6 of the worlds most populated nations- China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Japan and Indonesia.
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Polar tundra climate location
North, around the coasts eg Northern Canada
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Tropical monsoon climate Importance
If importance was measured by the numbers of people affected, then the tropical monsoon climate would be the most important climate in the world.
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The polar tundra climate Importance
The tundra climate does not have the same importance as the tropical monsoon climate due to much lower population. The tundra and ice cap regions of polar climates cover more than 20 percent of the earth.
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Features of the Tropical monsoon climate
Wet season= May to October, when the overhead sun heats the land intensively causing a low pressure system as air rises sucking in moist air from the sea bringing heavy rain
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Features of The polar tundra climate
The climate is cold- very cold! At such high latitudes, hours of summer sunshine may be long, but average temperatures rising above 0oC are measured in weeks rather than months
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Who is dependent on the polar tundra climates?
This climate has supported indigenous people sustainably, albeit at subsistence levels for thousands of years. The Inuit in N.Canada and Greenland have hunted caribou and seals in winter, and fished in summer, always sustainably.
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Who is dependent on the Tropical monsoon climates?
For many subsistence farmers, their very survival depends upon the seasonal nature of the climate because of rice. Rich in carbs, fibre and vegetable protein, its importance cannot be underestimated.
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Why are soils important?
sustain 95% of food production, soils host more than ¼ of the planets biodiversity, are a major source of pharmaceuticals and play critical role in the carbon cycle.
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5 essential functions of soil
Cycling nutrients Regulating water flow Sustaining plant and animal life Filtering and buffering potential pollutants Physical stability and support.
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Soil Horizons
The profile is made up of layers, running parallel to the surface, called Soil Horizons
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Zonal soils
A zonal soil is a major soil group often classified as covering a wide geographic region, well developed and mature, having taken a long time to develop from the parent material.
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What is a zonal soil determined by?
A zonal soil has a profile determined mainly by the local climate and vegetation.
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Soil is being lost between 10 and 40 times the rate at which it can be naturally replenished. Approximately 40% of soil used for agriculture around the world is degraded. Without soil management, food production would decline by 30% over 30 years
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The main soil problems are?
Soil erosion Waterlogging Salinisation Structural deterioration
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Which of the following is not an input to the agricultural system? Precipitation Labour Seeds Fodder crops Livestock Milking Fertilisers Temperature
Livestock and Milking
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Pastoral farming is...
The practice of rearing livestock
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High tech machinery and up-to-date technology, glasshouses and irrigation systems are commonly used in which type of agriculture?
Intensive farming
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Where is rice commonly grown?
South-East Asia
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Why are monsoon rains so important for people living in SE Asia?
Rice is cultivated during monsoon season. Rice provides food. The straw from the plant is used as fodder, kindling for fires and can be woven in to hats, baskets etc.
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Which climate supports more people – Polar Tundra or Tropical Monsoon?
Tropical Monsoon
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Name a group of indigenous people in the polar tundra region
Inuit (northern Canada and Greenland), Sami (northern Europe)
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Food security
Food security is when people have reliable access to sufficient, affordable, nutritious food to support a healthy life.
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Food availability
it must be available in sufficient quantities and on a consistent basis.
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Food access
through purchase, home production, barter, gifts, borrowing or food aid.
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Food utilisation
consumed food must have a positive nutritional impact.
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Food insecurity in Somalia
More than 3 million people cannot meet their daily food requirements, 800,000 on the brink of famine. Another 3.3 million Somalis need livelihood support to keep from sliding into crisis.An estimated 388,000 children under age 5 are acutely malnouris
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Strategies to ensure food security in LICs and NEEs
Improved agricultural productivity, Economic growth and Expansion of social protection
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Improved agricultural productivity
Improvements have led to higher yields per hectare through the use of high-yielding varieties of seed (HYVs), agrochemicals, and mechanisation. Marginal land has been brought into production using irrigation in dry lands, drainage of sand bog lands
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Expansion of social protection
whether through cash transfers to vulnerable households, food vouchers, health insurance or school meal programmes, the FAO estimate that 150 million people worldwide are prevented from falling into extreme poverty thanks to social protection
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Strategies to ensure food security in HICs
CAP, GM crops and Crop wild relatives
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the Common Agricultural policy (CAP) encouraged farmers to increase food production by offering grants, subsidies and guaranteed prices.
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Crop wild relatives
Crop wild relatives are species closely related to common food crops.
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Crop wild relatives benifits
These wild cousins are vital to food security because they contain greater amounts of genetic diversity, making them more resilient to climate change, waterlogging, salinisation, pests and diseases, and any other new threats.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Where is the least populated place on earth?


Greenland Population density of 0.0 people per km²

Card 3


Demographic Transition Model


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Card 4


Stage 1


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Card 5


Stage 2


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