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It is a system made up of living things and no-living things, biotic and a-biotic

Non living (a-biotic) such as:

Underlying rock
Soil characteristics
Relief of the land

Living (biotic) need a-biotic to survive such as

Micro organisms
Decomposers: an organism which takes the…

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such as the water cycle. It also provides the light needed for a plant to photosynthesise to provide
food for the plant

The plant then gets consumed by the primary consumer (herbivore) and then secondary consumers
(carnivore) and then to other organisms. This is a flow of energy in a…

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Ecosystems are not stagnate but rather evolve over time as the interactions between
different elements of an ecosystem means that they are all interlinked, as the climate
changes it affects the vegetation which affects the soil and so on.

The best way to see this development is to observe the…

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Fore Dune

These form as more sands builds up on the dunes also embryo dunes join together to form a bigger
dune. It is not as hostile so plants like Sea Rocket start to grow. But Marram grass is still dominate in
this stage.

Yellow dune

As the dune continues…

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There are 6 major biomes these are:

Tropical rainforest
Temperate forest
Grassland/ savanna

They are distributed from the equator an are distributed the same either side where the coldest
Biomes (Tundra) nearest to the poles of the earth and the hottest parts (Tropical forest/ Deserts)
nearest to…

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Herb layer: this contains small plants these are mainly herbal plants such as the Mayapple

Ground zone-this has lichen, club mosses, and true mosses.

Soil type
Because in they cold seasons the trees drop their leaves there is a fertile soil which tends
to travel quite deep and this…

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The trees in this biome shed their leaves during the winter months this is so it can go into
hibernation this I due to the fact less water is available for photosynthesis and shorter days.
The leaves fall onto the forest floor and decay and enrich the soil…

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whole corridor follows this river even going through Newcastle city this is until it reaches the river
Tyne which is a cut off point for this corridor.

Invasive species case study ­ Oxford Ragwort

It was imported from Scilly in the 18th century this was to transfer them so the…

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Surface roughness- allowing pants to get a hold- glass+ metal too smooth
Pollution levels- depends on previous usage of the site, some substances are toxic to plants

There are a verity of ways seeds can be deposited on a wasteland, these are:

They might be deposited from the previous land…

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Many of these plants are known as ruderal species because they are able to tolerate waste ground,
rubbish and debris. Their roots will continue to help break up rocks and compacted soil.

Plant succession normally rapid at this stage.

Early fauna includes ground predators such as spiders, harvestmen, beetles, moths,…




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