16.1 Producing DNA fragments

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Previously proteins such as insulin that needed to be injected into patients who couldn't produce them, were taken from other humans and animals.

This method was extremely costly and there were also risks of rejection by the immune system and infections.

When the DNA of two different organisms is combined, it is known as recombinant DNA, and the new organism is known as a Genetically Modified Organism.

Stages of DNA Transfer and Cloning:

  • Isolation of the desired DNA fragments.
  • Insertion of this fragment into a vector.
  • Transferall into a host cell.
  • Identification of host cells that have successfully taken up the gene. This is done by gene markers.
  • Growth or cloning of successful host…


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