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  • stem cells and DNA tech
    • are undifferentiated and can continually divide
      • can become specialised
    • totipotent
      • can produce ANY TYPE OF CELL
      • translate only part of their DNA resulting in cell specialisation
      • =limited and only occur in embryos
    • pluripotent
      • can become almost any type of cell + found in embryos
      • used to treat human disorders
        • can be used to regrow damaged cells
        • issues -can continually divide to produce tumors
    • unipotent
      • one type of cells
    • multipotent
      • limited number of cells - in the bone marrow
    • Recombinant DNA technology
      • Amplification of the DNA fragment or gene
        • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a way of amplifying DNA fragments in vitro
          • Requires the DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, primers and a thermocycler
      • Transfer of DNA fragments between organisms
      • Production of fragments of DNA
        • Convert mRNA to cDNA by reverse transcriptase
          • Restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific positions
            • Gene machine to create the gene fragment


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