Violent Crime - R*pe


Definitions of r*pe, force & lack of consent

R*pe - forced or nonconsensual acts

Force - physical force, threat of physical force, but not other types of threats (e.g divorce)

Lack of consent - incapacitation due to intoxication, mental illness, physical or intellectual disabilities

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R*pe In The UK

Sexual offences act (2003)

R*pe in the UK isn't a gender neutral offence

UK also doesn't classify anything other than penetration with a penis as r*pe

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Reported VS Recorded Crime

Pakes & Winstone (2007) - huge increase in recording but not in reporting, more people coming forward

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Studying R*pe

Problems with prevalence studies

Cultural element of reinforcement - some see violence as an acceptable way to get their way

Few patterns to follow - majority in the home, committed against relatively young people, usually a victim-offender relationship

R*pists tend to offend more than once

3/4 are domestic

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Why Do R*pists R*pe?

No one knows - difficulties with reliable data collection

Not a homogenous group - multiple cases, differences, reasons

Child & adult sex offenders very different, paedophiles different again

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Cohen's Typology Of R*pists

Aggressive aim - angry, want to hurt someone

Sexual aim - just want sex in any way they can

Sex-aggressive aim - intertwined, need aggression for arousal

Impulse rapists - pick a random victim by chance

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Problems With Cohen's Typology

Psychopathological profiles based upon convicted r*pists

Many r*pes aren't reported to the police

Less than half of police reports result in arrests

Many of those arrested plea bargin for lesser sentences

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The Feminists Perspective

Social foundations in any society with male dominance

Assumes that cultural forces promote **** - misogynous forces, traditional sex roles etc

Do we live in a 'r*pe culture'?

Is r*pe a common experience for women in our culture? - importance on women's 'fault', proof

Is a proclivity for r*pe common in our culture?

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The Social Dynamics Of Date R*pe

Malamuth's (1981) likelihood to r*pe scale

3 ways in which men who score high on the scale resemble actual r*pists:

1. Both tend to endorse r*pe myths

2. Both tend to be sexually aroused by r*pe depictions

3. Both are willing to physically aggress against women

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Preference For Non-Consenting Sex?

Might be measured through phallometry/penile plethysmography

Instrumental & expressive sexual aggression

R*pists as aroused as non-r*pists by consenting sex, but not all prefer non

Aggression is a arousal inhibitor for non-r*pists (lessens)

Assertiveness (aggression?) can act to arouse some r*pists - need to be careful in treatment

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Different Attitudes Towards Women?

Existence of 'r*pe myth' attitudes (Burst, 1980) - questionnaire widely used

R*pists not necessarily distinguishable from non-rapists on these

Just world beliefs (Lerner, 1980) still held - people get what they deserve

Gender differences may lead to different percpetions about r*pe by people in the Criminal Justice System

1. Acceptance of interpersonal violence

2. Adversial sexual beliefs

3. Endorsement of sex role stereotypes

Leads to r*pe myth acceptance = likelihood of r*pe

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A Role For Self-Esteem?

Low levels of self-esteem?

Choice of non-threatening partners - overpower, easily coerced etc

Rejection during enactment of fantasy can lead to lowering of self-esteem

Stuck in cycle - rejection = low self-esteem = r*pe

Refine fantasy after disappointment

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Groth's Taxonomy (1979)

Anger r*pes (40%) - blitz attackers, disorganised, over represented

Power r*pes (55%) - fantasies, domination, organised (kits), under represented, more likely to reoffend

Sadistic r*pes (5%) - want to hurt, leads to death of victim

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Hazlewood's Taxonomy (1997)

Power assurance r*pes - planned, uncertain on masculinity, kind to victim, requires reassurance

Power assertive r*pes - violent, confident, date r*pes

Anger retaliatory r*pes - grudges, chooses victim based on these e.g someone who looks like ex

Anger excitement r*pes - very violent, sadistic, rare

Dominance, power & control for all

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Pakes & Winstone (2007)

Massachusetts Treatment Centre R*pists Typology (MTC:R3)

1. Opportunistic/assertive - important act, immediate gratification, blitz attack, use force

2. Pervasively angry

3. Vindictive - have victim type, assault more successful people

4. Sexually motivated - not purposefully to harm victim

5. Sadistic - cause emotional & physical pain

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A Lack Of Emotional Control?

Perceived stress acts as a disinhibitor

Inability to find alternative coping mechanisms

Tendency for excessive: (more common in child offenders)

1. Rumination - overthinking about bad events etc

2. Emotional inhibitions - not able to use emotions constructively

3. Low levels of emotional control - snap at smallest things, inappropriate emotional acts

4. Low levels of benign control (high impulsivity) - want & need to have, so get

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External Attributions Of Blame For Actions?

Admitters & deniers - r*pists tend to have external LOC

5 types of denial:

1. Admitting but justifying

2. Denying & minimising occurrence

3. Denying seriousness

4. Denying responsibility

5. Blaming external factors - drunk, drugs, stress, wrong frame of mind etc

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Cognitive behavioural in focus (shorter, more proactive, understanding thought processes & preventing them):

1. Emotion control

2. Empathy enhancement

3. Anger management

4. Relapse prevention strategies

5. Social skill development (caution needed!)

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