TSAR ALEXANDER II REVISION ( 1855- 1881)

Revision cards for the legacy of Tsar Alexander II 

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SERFDOM

SERFDOM= nobles pledged alligance to the Tsar in the 15th century and as an reward for there support, the serfs were tied to the land which the nobles owned.

* By mid 19th century, serfdom was the biggest problem within Russian society 

80 % of Russias population ( 25 million) were serfs or state peasants 

Majoirty of this 80% were landless peasants 

*Serdom was seen as an major obstacle to the modernsisation of Russian soceity 

*This was because of the creation of a substience agriculture. This means that the serfs only produced enough to feed themselves, leaving very little to export and poor harvests leading to large famines. 

*1855= Russia only major power to have serfdom

*1861= Tsar Alexander II abolished serfdom 

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SERFDOM CONT.

1861= EMANCIPATION OF THE SERFS 

* SERFS WERE NOT COMPLETELY FREE 

LANDOWNERS HAD TO BE COMPENSATED AS THE SERFS HAD BEEN TIED TO THERE LAND

THIS MEANT THAT FREE SERFS HAD TO PAY "REPARATION PAYMENTS" FOR 49 YEARS TO THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT 

* SERFS ALSO FORCED TO LIVE IN "MIRS" ( COMMUNUES) IN WHICH LAND WAS HELD COLLECTIVELY

*THE ELDERS OF THE COMMUNE WOULD PERIODICALLY REDISTRIBUTE LAND ACCORDING TO NEED. THIS ACTED AS AN MAJOR OBSTACLE TO AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENT. 

*SHOULD A SERF WANT TO LEAVE THE MIR THEN THEY WOULD HAVE TO ASK FOR PERMISSION FROM THE ELDERS 

*THESE MEASURES GRADUALLY SLOWED DOWN THE GROWTH OF RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE AS DID THE INCREASED MOVEMENT TO THE TOWNS AND CITIES

*A RAPID RISE IN POPULATION IN EUROPEAN RUSSIAN IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY  CAUSED THE EFFECTS TO BE WORSE AS PERIODS OF FOOD SHORTAGES TURNED INTO FULL BLOWN FAMINE

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POLITICAL + JUDICAL REFORM UNDER ALEXANDER II

-> 1864 saw introduction of Russias first ever elected government 

-> This was known as the ZEMSTVA = ELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RURAL AREAS 

-> In 1870 the Zemstva was extended to towns and cities 

-> however the electorate was limited to the educated + wealthy 

-> zemstava powers were limited to road building and elementaroy education 

1870 -> reform of the judical system in which trial by jury was introduced 

allowed public to have an influence, whereas before 1870 justice was delegated by the Tsars officals 

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Comments

sarah

more notes please on the rest I  will be taking this in may 2012

Patrick Woodcock

okayyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy :) 

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