LEISURE: Travelling for pleasure in free time, holiday or taking a break.
EXAMPLE: Going to Ibiza for 2 weeks in the summer to realx on the beach.
DEFINITION: When travelling somewhere which is not their country of residence. (Tourist coming into a country)
EXAMPLE: Someone from another country travelling to Spain.
DEFINITION: when leaving their country of residence. (leaving home country for tourism purpose)
EXAMPLE: Someone from Italy travelling to another country.
DEFINITION: People who are travelling within their own country for tourism purposes.
EXAMPLE: someone visiting historic places in the same location they live in. someone from Mallorca visiting the Bellver castle.
DEFINITION: Travelling to attend to a meeting, conference or event linked with their business or job. (Travelling for the purpose of work)
EXAMPLE: Someone from the UK travelling to Japan for a business meeting.
DEFINITION: All inclusive trips, include accommodation, transport and transfer.
- Flight, hotel and transfer from the airport to the hotel all in one whole price.
- Someone going to a resort with all inclusive services, food, drink, activities...
DEFINITION: Travelling for the purpose of participating in extreme sports or thrill seeking activities.
- Travelling to New Zealand to sky dive.
- travelling to Hawaii to swim with sharks.
DEFINITION: Thoughs who arrange their own accommodation, transport, activities... without using the help of travel profesionals.
EXAMPLE: Booking a hotel room directly with the hotel.
DEFINITION: (Visiting Friends and Relatives) unlikely to spend as much on tourism as they are not staying in hotels.
EXAMPLES: Going to a family christmas dinner in another location.
EXTERNAL PRESSURES - CURRENCY FLUCTUATION
- The value of one currency against another, known as the exchange rate.
- The value of the sterling against another currency affects the cost of travelling to the UK for inbound tourists.
- Appeal increases when the sterling is weak, as they get more pounds for their money.
- If the sterling is strong, they get less pounds and are unlikely to visit the UK.
- Fluctuation can effect TO's beacuse prices they have agreed with hoteliers and transporters in other countries will increase/decrease in line with currency movements.
- Same with fuel, this can be avoided by agreeing a fix price in advance.
EXTERNAL PRESSURES - CLIMATE
- Natural disasters such as hurricanes, volcanic erruptions, Tsunamis, earquakes...
- These can cause deaths, loss of money, loss of infrastructures like hotels and attractions.
- Japan's 2011 earthquake followed by a Tsunami. 2,300 deaths. Cost $235 billion
- Reluctance of many tourists to return to the area.
- Even minor climate change affects tourism.
- If there is a particularly hot summer in the UK there is usually an increase in domestic tourism and a corresponding decrease in outbound tourism the next year.
EXTERNAL PRESSURES - TERRORIST ATTACS
- New York (world trade center) 9/11 attacks.
- Bombings in London and Madrid underground.
- War/civil unrest: ISIS (thousands of Syrians fleeing to European countries for refuge status.
- This leads to a loss of tourism in this destinations, tourists lose confidence to travel and afraid to fly.
EXTERNAL PRESSURES - ECONOMIC CLIMATE
- Refers to the state of the country's finance.
- If the country has a strong economy, levels of emloyment are high, so peoples income will be higher and more spending occurs, further boosting the economy. (Germany)
- if the economy is poor, levels of unemployment are high, income is low so spending is low too. (Syria)
DEFINITION: When a service has an end date.
EXAMPLE: A seat on a plane, hotel room, train seat is empty and does not sell. if a plane seat is booked, it has to be used of the day of they flight, otherwise it can't be used. it has perished.
DEFINITION: You can't touch a tourism service.
EXAMPLE: Holidays can only be experienced. TO's use websites and online brochures to make products more tangible.
DEFINITION: Demand is seasonal.
EXAMPLE: Mallorca's most popular times are from May to October.
DEFINITION: No physical product, no transfer of ownership.
EXAMPLE: Use/purchase of aeroplane seat/hotel room.
GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - MOTIVATING FACTORS
DEFINITION: These are pull factors, they give us the desire to travel to a destination.
EXAMPLE: Relaxation, appreciate new and different cultures, sun, rest, socialising, escaping everyday life, activities...
GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - ENABLES
DEFINITION: Reasons that influence whether you can go on holiday.
- Money = Affordability
- Time = Holiday leave - Dates of travel
- Availability of travel = Modes of transport - air, sea, road, rail.
- Marketing of a destination = Advertising/promoting special deals.
GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - THE GREY MARKET
DEFINITION: Made up of older people who are fit and healthy and have plenty of time and avalible funds to travel.
(OAP's - Old Age Pensioners)
GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS
DEFINITION: Encourages independent bookings and travel arrangements.
- Booking online/self-check-in online.
- Online brochures
- Research, development and design (new products.
DEFINITION: this occurs when 2 companies in the Chain of distribution merge together or a bought out. If a TO buys a hotel or a TO buys a TA.
- Thomas Tui and Riu Hotels (hotels)
- Thomas Tui and Thomsonfly (airlines)
DEFINITION:This occurs when companies are bought out or merged at the same level in the chain of distribution.
- One travel agency buys another travel agency (Firstchoice and Thomson)
- One TO buys another TO (Thomas Cook and Co-operative Travel)
DEFINITION: Organisations that work together to benefit eachother for income and customers.
EXAMPLE: Tourists information center in Palma sells tickets for the hop on - hop off busses.
AITO (Association of Independent Tout Operators)
- Represents indenpendent TO's specialise in specific destinations and types of holidays.
- An AITO member arranges financial protection for your holiday.
- AITO members monitos quality standards - every customer recives a post-holiday questionnaire and the results are analysed in-depth by the TO.
- Customers can also leave feedback in the AITO's website or directly with the TO they booked the holiday with.
- Their websites and brochures clearly and accuraly describe the holiday and services provided.
ABTA (Association of British Travel Agents)
- Represents TA's and TO's that sell £32 billion of holiday packages each year.
- All members must provide accurate information about holiday packages each year.
- All members can provide accurate information and advice on passport, visa and health reqirements. (like a pregnent women)
- Can offer alternative accommodation, if building was under construction or maintainance work and is affecting the customers holiday.
- A refund of your holiday cost, if there is a significant flight delay and you do not wish to travel anymore.
- Members of ABTA have the advantage of the ABTA brand recognition.
ATOL (Air Travel Agences Licence)
- When you book a holliday thst is ATOL protected, customers will be give an ATOL certificate from the travel company.
- This is customer protection guarantee.
- ATOL protects the customer from losing money or becoming stranded abroad if a travel company collapses.
- If the company collapses before customer leaves the country, scheme will provide a full refund.
- ATOL protection includes:
Flights + accommodation / flights + car hire ]- tailor made
- Consumers should check before booking that the TA has ATOL protection logo (check website/brochures)
- Get the ATOL certificate, proof that you are covered you book a holiday and pay any money towards it.
AIRPORT SHUTTLE TRANSFER
Reliable = Check flight's details
Cheap = €8 (1-way)
Quick = Route planner
Caters for many groups = Like families, couples groups...
Variety of options of vehicle = Limo, shuttle bus (cheapest option), minivan (approx. 12 people.)
FEATURES OF LOW COST AIRLINES
- Book online.
- Mobile check-in.
- No free food/drink.
- Cheap airfares.
- Cabin luggage 10kg limit.
- Short haul flights (mainly).
- No on-board entertainment.
- Self check-in saves on admin and staff cost.
- Pay extra for luggage over 10kg.
AIRLINES RESPONDING TO EXTERNAL PREASSURES
- Cut jobs (temporary contracts/seasonal)
- Shorten the flight season (UK-Mallorca March to October, Rayanair)
- Plan fewer flights per day/week
- Increase prices to cover cost of fuel
- Reduce cabin crew on flights to save money on salaries/over night accommodation (long haul flights over 5 hours)
- On-line check-in is compulsory, saves admin cost.
- Increased luggage charges = moves profit and cover the cost of fuel.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTERS
- Provide numerous products/services.
- Sell and book tickets for attractions (hop on - hop off buses)
- Sell souveniers ( key rings, fridge magnets, hats and t-shirts)
- Give advice on car rentals/bikerentals.
- Offer guided walks and tours.
- Educate tourists on the area (displays and exhibitions.)
- Brochures and flyers for attractions.
HOLIDAY BOOKING METHODS: CHANGES
- Internet bookings
- Increase in low-cost airlines
- More independent bookings
- TO's have very competitive packages
- Promotions by airlines + TO's + TA's to attract tourists at last minute
- Call center-specialised staff
- Mobile/app technology (Passbook)
DIRECT AND INDIRECT JOBS IN TOURISM
- Cabin crew
- Travel agent
- Tour guide
- TO customers ervice agent
- Hotel recepcionist
- Holiday insurence providers
- Printers of holiday brochures/flyers
- National Tourist Office responsible for promoting Britain as a tourist destination to overseas markets through marketing campaigns.
- To grow the value of the domestic market by encouraging tourists to take short and long haul breaks in Britain (working with hoteliers and airlines)
- To work in partnerships with the national and regional tourist board (northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales to built up the British Tourist Industry.
- Advise government and the In dustry on tourism issues affecting Britain global competitiveness.