travel and tourism unit 1

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LEISURE TOURISM

LEISURE: Travelling for pleasure in free time, holiday or taking a break.

EXAMPLE: Going to Ibiza for 2 weeks in the summer to realx on the beach.

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INBOUND/INCOMING TOURISM

DEFINITION: When travelling somewhere which is not their country of residence. (Tourist coming into a country)

EXAMPLE: Someone from another country travelling to Spain.

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OUTBOUND/OUTGOING TOURISM

DEFINITION: when leaving their country of residence. (leaving home country for tourism purpose)

EXAMPLE: Someone from Italy travelling to another country.

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DOMESTIC TOURISM

DEFINITION: People who are travelling within their own country for tourism purposes.

EXAMPLE: someone visiting historic places in the same location they live in. someone from Mallorca visiting the Bellver castle.

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BUSINESS TOURISM

DEFINITION: Travelling to attend to a meeting, conference or event linked with their business or job. (Travelling for the purpose of work)

EXAMPLE: Someone from the UK travelling to Japan for a business meeting.

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PACKAGE HOLIDAY

DEFINITION: All inclusive trips, include accommodation, transport and transfer.

EXAMPLE: 

  • Flight, hotel and transfer from the airport to the hotel all in one whole price.  
  • Someone going to a resort with all inclusive services, food, drink, activities...
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ADVENTURE TOURISM

DEFINITION: Travelling for the purpose of participating in extreme sports or thrill seeking activities.

EXAMPLE:

  • Travelling to New Zealand to sky dive.
  • travelling to Hawaii to swim with sharks.
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INDEPENDENT TOURISM

DEFINITION: Thoughs who arrange their own accommodation, transport, activities... without using the help of travel profesionals.

EXAMPLE: Booking a hotel room directly with the hotel.

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V.F.R TOURISM

DEFINITION: (Visiting Friends and Relatives) unlikely to spend as much on tourism as they are not staying in hotels.

EXAMPLES: Going to a family christmas dinner in another location.

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EXTERNAL PRESSURES - CURRENCY FLUCTUATION

  • The value of one currency against another, known as the exchange rate.
  • The value of the sterling against another currency affects the cost of travelling to the UK for inbound tourists.
  • Appeal increases when the sterling is weak, as they get more pounds for their money.
  • If the sterling is strong, they get less pounds and are unlikely to visit the UK.
  • Fluctuation can effect TO's beacuse prices they have agreed with hoteliers and transporters in other countries will increase/decrease in line with currency movements.
  • Same with fuel, this can be avoided by agreeing a fix price in advance. 
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EXTERNAL PRESSURES - CLIMATE

  • Natural disasters such as hurricanes, volcanic erruptions, Tsunamis, earquakes...
  • These can cause deaths, loss of money, loss of  infrastructures like hotels and attractions.
  • Japan's 2011 earthquake followed by a Tsunami. 2,300 deaths. Cost $235 billion
  • Reluctance of many tourists to return to the area.
  • Even minor climate change affects tourism.
  • If there is a particularly hot summer in the UK there is usually an increase in domestic tourism and a corresponding decrease in outbound tourism the next year.
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EXTERNAL PRESSURES - TERRORIST ATTACS

  • New York (world trade center) 9/11 attacks.
  • Bombings in London and Madrid underground.
  • War/civil unrest: ISIS (thousands of Syrians fleeing to European countries for refuge status.
  • This leads to a loss of tourism in this destinations, tourists lose confidence to travel and afraid to fly.
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EXTERNAL PRESSURES - ECONOMIC CLIMATE

  • Refers to the state of the country's finance.
  • If the country has a strong economy, levels of emloyment are high, so peoples income will be higher and more spending occurs, further boosting the economy. (Germany)
  • if the economy is poor, levels of unemployment are high, income is low so spending is low too. (Syria) 
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PERISHABILITY

DEFINITION: When a service has an end date.

EXAMPLE: A seat on a plane, hotel room, train seat is empty and does not sell. if a plane seat is booked, it has to be used of the day of they flight, otherwise it can't be used. it has perished.

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INTANGIBILITY

DEFINITION: You can't touch a tourism service.

EXAMPLE: Holidays can only be experienced. TO's use websites and online brochures to make products more tangible.

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SEASONALITY

DEFINITION: Demand is seasonal.

EXAMPLE: Mallorca's most popular times are from May to October.

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OWNERSHIP

DEFINITION: No physical product, no transfer of ownership. 

EXAMPLE: Use/purchase of aeroplane seat/hotel room.

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GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - MOTIVATING FACTORS

DEFINITION: These are pull factors, they give us the desire to travel to a destination.

EXAMPLE: Relaxation, appreciate new and different cultures, sun, rest, socialising, escaping everyday life, activities...

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GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - ENABLES

DEFINITION: Reasons that influence whether you can go on holiday.

EXAMPLE:

  • Money = Affordability
  • Time = Holiday leave - Dates of travel
  • Availability of travel = Modes of transport - air, sea, road, rail.
  • Marketing of a destination = Advertising/promoting special deals.
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GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - THE GREY MARKET

DEFINITION: Made up of older people who are fit and healthy and have plenty of time and avalible funds to travel.

(OAP's - Old Age Pensioners)

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GROWTH OF T&T INDUSTRY - TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS

DEFINITION: Encourages independent bookings and travel arrangements.

EXAMPLES:

  • Booking online/self-check-in online.
  • Online brochures
  • Research, development and design (new products. 
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VERTICAL INTEGRATION

DEFINITION: this occurs when 2 companies in the Chain of distribution merge together or a bought out. If a TO buys a hotel or a TO buys a TA.

EXAMPLE:

  • Thomas Tui and Riu Hotels (hotels)
  • Thomas Tui and Thomsonfly (airlines)
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HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION

DEFINITION:This occurs when companies are bought out or merged at the same level in the chain of distribution.

EXAMPLE:

  • One travel agency buys another travel agency (Firstchoice and Thomson)
  • One TO buys another TO (Thomas Cook and Co-operative Travel)
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INTERRELATIONSHIPS.

DEFINITION: Organisations that work together to benefit eachother for income and customers.

EXAMPLE: Tourists information center in Palma sells tickets for the hop on - hop off busses.

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AITO (Association of Independent Tout Operators)

  • Represents indenpendent TO's specialise in specific destinations and types of holidays.
  • An AITO member arranges financial protection for your holiday.
  • AITO members monitos quality standards - every customer recives a post-holiday questionnaire and the results are analysed in-depth by the TO.
  • Customers can also leave feedback in the AITO's website or directly with the TO they booked the holiday with.
  • Their websites and brochures clearly and accuraly describe the holiday and services provided.
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ABTA (Association of British Travel Agents)

  • Represents TA's and TO's that sell £32 billion of holiday packages each year.
  • All members must provide accurate information about holiday packages each year.
  • All members can provide accurate information and advice on passport, visa and health reqirements. (like a pregnent women)
  • Can offer alternative accommodation, if building was under construction or maintainance work and is affecting the customers holiday.
  • A refund of your holiday cost, if there is a significant flight delay and you do not wish to travel anymore.
  • Members of ABTA have the advantage of the ABTA brand recognition.
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ATOL (Air Travel Agences Licence)

  • When you book a holliday thst is ATOL protected, customers will be give an ATOL certificate from the travel company.
  • This is customer protection guarantee.
  • ATOL protects the customer from losing money or becoming stranded abroad if a travel company collapses.
  • If the company collapses before customer leaves the country, scheme will provide a full  refund.
  • ATOL protection includes:

Flights + accommodation / flights + car hire ]- tailor made

  • Consumers should check before booking that the TA has ATOL protection logo (check website/brochures)
  • Get the ATOL certificate, proof that you are covered you book a holiday and pay any money towards it.
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AIRPORT SHUTTLE TRANSFER

Reliable = Check flight's details

Cheap = €8 (1-way)

Quick = Route planner

Caters for many groups = Like families, couples groups...

Variety of options of vehicle = Limo, shuttle bus (cheapest option), minivan (approx. 12 people.) 

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FEATURES OF LOW COST AIRLINES

  • Book online.
  • Mobile check-in.
  • No free food/drink.
  • Cheap airfares.
  • Cabin luggage 10kg limit.
  • Short haul flights (mainly).
  • No on-board entertainment.
  • Self check-in saves on admin and staff cost.
  • Pay extra for luggage over 10kg.
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AIRLINES RESPONDING TO EXTERNAL PREASSURES

  • Cut jobs (temporary contracts/seasonal)
  • Shorten the flight season (UK-Mallorca March to October, Rayanair)
  • Plan fewer flights per day/week
  • Increase prices to cover cost of fuel
  • Reduce cabin crew on flights to save money on salaries/over night accommodation (long haul flights over 5 hours)
  • On-line check-in is compulsory, saves admin cost.
  • Increased luggage charges = moves profit and cover the cost of fuel.
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TOURIST INFORMATION CENTERS

  • Provide numerous products/services.
  • Sell and book tickets for attractions (hop on - hop off buses)
  • Sell souveniers ( key rings, fridge magnets, hats and t-shirts)
  • Give advice on car rentals/bikerentals.
  • Offer guided walks and tours.
  • Educate tourists on the area (displays and exhibitions.)
  • Brochures and flyers for attractions.
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HOLIDAY BOOKING METHODS: CHANGES

  • Internet bookings
  • Increase in low-cost airlines
  • More independent bookings
  • TO's have very competitive packages
  • Promotions by airlines + TO's + TA's to attract tourists at last minute
  • Call center-specialised staff
  • Mobile/app technology (Passbook)
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DIRECT AND INDIRECT JOBS IN TOURISM

DIRECT:

  • Cabin crew
  • Travel agent
  • Tour guide
  • TO customers ervice agent
  • Hotel recepcionist

INDIRECT:

  • Holiday insurence providers
  • Printers of holiday brochures/flyers
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VISIT BRITAN

  • National Tourist Office responsible for promoting Britain as a tourist destination to overseas markets through marketing campaigns.
  • To grow the value of the domestic market by encouraging tourists to take short and long haul breaks in Britain (working with hoteliers and airlines)
  • To work in partnerships with the national and regional tourist board (northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales to built up the British Tourist Industry.
  • Advise government and the In dustry on tourism issues affecting Britain global competitiveness.
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