The USA and the world

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  • Created on: 08-04-13 12:47

The objectives of US foreign policy from 1890

Why did US foreign policy become more expansionist after 1890?

  • Before 1890
    • Defensive and inward looking
  • After 1890
    • Growth of big business, mass immigration and industrialisation changed foreign policy
    • US wanted to protect trade
    • By protecting trade US could increase economic growth
    • Trade seen in foreign policy in:
      • Building of the Panama Canal
      • Spanish-American War
    • Now imperialist foreign policy which would give them longer influence and power and a greater empire
    • 1900 - US Navy third largest in the world
    • Security seen in foreign policy in:
      • Annexation of land such as Hawaii and Philippines
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The objectives of US foreign policy from 1890

  • Ideas of cultural and racial superiority - Civilising mission
    • 'Manifest of Destiny' - Idea that it was the destiny and God-given right of the US to expand westwards
  • Imperialist ideologies:
    • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
    • Alfred Thayer Mahan
    • TR

Evidence of expansionism

  • Spanish-American War (1898) in Cuba
  • Annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines
  • Open Door Policy in China
  • Platt Amendment
  • Alaska Boundary Dispute
  • Panama Canal's construction
  • Roosevelt's Corollary
  • Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
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The objectives of US foreign policy from 1890

Why did the US intervene in Cuba and the Philippines, what was the outcome?

  • Cuba was a Spanish colony
  • Cuba exported cigars and sugar to the US
  • Spain wanted full control of Cuba
  • Cubans revolted against Spain; Spain crushed resistance with violence
  • Cubans wanted US intervention
  • US had no reason to intervene until USS Maine - which was docked in Havana - was blown up (1898)
  • 'Yellow Press' supported by big business interests, found out
  • US Navy, led by TR, took control of Cuba after a swift victory
  • Roosvelt a national hero - 'Rough Riders'
  • Treaty of Paris saw Cuba remain under US military rule until 1902
  • US annexed other Spanish colonies
    • Puerto Rico
    • Guam
    • Philippines
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The objectives of US foreign policy from 1890

Why did the US intervene in Cuba and the Philippines, what was the outcome? (cont.)

  • Like the Cubans, the Filipinos wanted independence from Spain
  • Leader of the Filipino Campaign, Emilio Aguinaldo, coperated with Admiral Dewey
  • Aguinaldo had a rebel force
  • Dewey's fleet sailed into Manila Bay and destroyed the Spanish fleet
  • US then establish military control
  • Clear that the US wouldn't allow Filipino independence
  • Filipinos revolted
  • Revolt wasn't brought under control until 1902, when Philippines gave independence
  • At home the US annexation of Philippines was controversial
  • US citizens believed annexing Philippines betrayed freedom and equality principles
  • Anti-Imperialist League attacked government for deserting anti-colonial ideas of Founding Fathers
  • Criticised use of violence and racial prejudice shown by US in treatment of their 'little brown brothers'
  • President McKinley and other politicians called it a 'civilising mission' to aid development of less advanced cultures
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The objectives of foreign policy from 1890

Why did the US intervene in Cuba and the Philippines, what was the outcome? (cont.)

  • Said different things in private
  • Events in China and Philippines manipulated for US gain and to support interventionist policies
  • Issues in Pacific and Far East more important to US after Spanish-American War
  • Concerns about Japanese Empite and European Intervention in China
  • Open Door Policy - To keep China from colonial rule
    • US keen to see free trade in China
    • Stop European powers taking over China
    • US sent troops to break up revolt in China
    • US feared Europeans would divide China up and US would have no power

Theodore Roosevelt and foreign policy

  • 1901 - Platt Amendment
    • Gave US power to intervene in Cuban affairs
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The objectives of foreign policy from 1890

Theodore Roosevelt and foreign policy (cont.)

  • 1903 - US and Canada settled Alaska Boundary dispute in favour of US
    • Underlined TR's assertive approach
  • 1903 - Panama Canal
    • TR supported Panamanian uprising so a new republic of Panama could be created from Colombia
  • 1904 - Roosevelt Corollary
    • Sent to Monroe Doctrine
    • Gave US power to intervene in Latin America in cases of wrongdoing
  • 1905 - Morocco Crisis
    • TR took a leading role in international response to crisis
  • October 1905 - Treaty of Portsmotuh
    • Negotiated peace in Russian-Japanese War
    • Gained international prestige and ensured Japan wouldn't make excessive gains from victory over Russia
    • Rise of Japanese power seen as a threat
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The objectives of foreign policy from 1890

Theodore Roosevelt and foreign policy (cont.)

  • Even after Taft won Republican nomiantion in 1908, TR still had massive influence over US foreign policy

Definitions

  • Open Door Policy - Created to stop European powers dividing China and it allowed free trade
  • Dollar Diplomacy - Used US financial power to secure domination of Latin American and Chinese economies. Woodrow Wilson reduced Dollar Diplomacy for a more ethical approach

Woodrow Wilson and foreign policy

  • One hand he was an isolationist
    • He turned away from Taft's Dollar Diplomacy and showed support for Open Door Policy
  • Recognised new government in China, angering Japan
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The objectives of foreign policy from 1890

Woodrow Wilson and foreign policy (cont.)

  • On the other hand he was an interventionist
    • Intervened in Mexico twice*
      • (1) 1914 - Went after dictator, Huerta
      • (2) 1916 - Went after Pancho Villa
    • Took US into WWI
  • Post-WWI: Key role in peace deals
    • Treaty of Versailles
    • Called for League of Nations
  • *Mexican intervention
    • (1) 1914 - Stabilise violence that had broken out after Mexican Revolution (1910-11)
      • Revolution threatened US business interests
      • Wilson sent in US marines
      • Hoped they would overthrow dictator, Huerta, but it strengthened his position
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The objectives of foreign policy from 1890

  • (2) 1916 - Sent large numbers of men to catch guerilla leader, Pancho Villa, who had attacked US residents in Columbus, NM
    • Soldiers spent months chasing PV without success
    • 1917 - Wilson withdrew troops
    • Instability in Mexico still a problem
    • US feared Germany would intervene

Success of Wilson's foreign policy

  • Emphasised peace and ethics
  • Diffrerent ideas to TR and Taft
  • However, Wilson intervened in Mexico
  • Unsuccessful in stabilising Mexio - Caused fear of German intervention in Mexico
  • Entering WWI was against Wilson's morals but he had to do it for trade and security
  • Wanted League of Nations after WWI - No one else did
  • Conclusion - Fairly successful
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The reasons for US entry into the First World War

Why didn't the US enter WWI?

  • US should only enter foreign affairs if trade or security of US threatened
  • US had no standing army - Made up of volunteers
  • Opposition to large army
  • Anti-colonial ideas reflecting US revolution
  • Many Americans dislike the British because of events like the British Navy blocking US trade roots causing financial trouble
  • Immigrants also dislike British

Why did the US enter WWI?

  • 1915 - WJB resigns as Secretary of State, weakening anti-war elements
  • TR and Cabot Lodge influential and pro-war
  • Big business were pro-war as it would create jobs and money
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The reasons for US entry into the First World War

Why did the US enter WWI? (cont.)

  • Main reasons:
    • Reports of German war crimes in Belgium - Increased anti-German feelings
    • 1915 - German U-boats sink Lusitania, a liner going from New York to Liveprool. Angered the public and caused outage amongst politicians
    • December 1916 - British government sent a secret report to the US saying they were bankrupt and couldn't win the war unless US joined
    • Zimmerman Telegram - German/Mexican invasion of US
    • February 1917 - Russian Revolution started. Joining Allies was a fight for democracy
  • Decisive event - Zimmerman Telegram:
    • 1916 - German economy so bad they decided to launch unrestricted submarine warfare in Atlantic, hoping to provoke US and get them to join WWI
    • Wanted to distract US from domestic problems
    • Germans proposed alliance with Mexico promising German support if Mexico attacked US
    • Telegram intercepted by British who passed it onto Washington
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The reasons for US entry into the First World War

Impact of US entry in WWI

  • November 1918 - Allies win
  • US wins first overseas war as part of an alliance with others
  • US had to conscript a large army initially
  • Took time for US troops to make an impact in Europe
  • Took time to train and equip troops
  • 1917 - Supply of US troops was small
  • January 1918 - US troops arriving at a rate of 250,000 a month
  • After US intervened in WWI, it was clear the Germans would lose
  • November 1918 - Armistice
  • US power and prestige grew
  • Played big part in post-war peace
  • 1918 - Wilson set out 14 points based on principles of self-determination and collective security
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The role of the USA in the post-war peace settleme

Why didn't Wilson achieve what he wanted?

  • Seen as Jesus by Europeans
  • USA, unlike other countries, had not suffered exhaustion, economic burdens or huge military losses
  • No way US could be blamed for starting war
  • US's anti-colonial history made them appear trustworthy and morally superior
  • Wilson's 14 points laid foundations for peace
  • Peace settlement allowed smaller countries to decide own destinies with collective security and peace protected by international agreements
  • One of the 14 points was to create a League of Nations
  • However, it wasn't simple
  • Wilson caught up in complex negotiations with 'Big Four'
  • They were more concerned with extending their empires and punishing Germany
  • Dealing with Germany was hard enough without the 'Big Four' interfering
  • Small countries were emerging as new empires from their old ones
  • Frustrated US diplomats as Wilson was spending most of his time sorting out land disputes
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The role of the USA in the post-war peace settleme

Why didn't Wilson achieve what he wanted? (cont.)

  • Wilson wanted to start with disarmament and setting up League of Nations
  • However, most of the 1919-20 peacemakers too busy finalising treaties with 5 defeated powers
  • Peace settlement not a complete failure - Diplomats did the best they could
  • Expectations too high
  • Congress didn't pass peace treaty until 1921
  • Reflected Wilson's domestic problems
  • Glow of victory quickly darkened
  • Demobilisation of army caused racial tension and violence
  • Economic problems at home
  • Many believe rewards of war effort worthless
    • 50,000 dead - Twice as many died because of Spanish Flu

Why did the US retreat into isolationism?

  • US public against League of Nations
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The role of the USA in the post-war peace settleme

Why did the US retreat into isolationism? (cont.)

  • Opposition mainly due to Wilson's war-weariness and the public's lack of enthusiasm due to long negotiations
  • Opposition to League of Nations:
    • William Borah - Seantor of Idaho
    • Led Republican 'Irreconcilables'
    • Speech to Senate in 1919 against League of Nations was detrimental to Wilson's hopes
  • Other opposition:
    • Henry Cabot Lodge
    • Urged US to act a world power independently
  • Wilson still insisted League of Nations was way forward
  • Wilson's personality became exhaustted
  • Alienated associates and missed opportunity to compromise with HCL
  • Wilson was very ill
  • September 1919 - Had a stroke and collapsed
  • Paralysed his left side
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The role of the USA in the post-war peace settleme

Why did the US retreat into isolationism? (cont.)

  • Blind in left eye
  • Died 1924 when public realised extent of his illness
  • Despite Wilson's campaigning, his policies were rejected in 1920
  • League of Nations' voted against by Congress
  • Democrats suffered defeat in 1920 election
  • Republicans dominant in Senate and House
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