The Mid-Tudor Crisis, 1547-1558
The development of government under Somerset and Northumberland: the impact of the religious policies under Edward VI; the extent to which internal security was threatened by the rebellions of 1559.
The problem of the succession in 1553 and the extent to which internal security was threatened by the rebellions of 1553 and 1554.
The personality and policies of Mary I; the Catholic restoration from 1553 and the extent to which Mary had transformed the religious situation in England by 1558 .
The Consolidation of Elizabeth I’s Rule, 1558–1571
The establishment of the political authority of Elizabeth I; the ideas and policies of Elizabeth and reactions to her church settlement of 1559
The role of key personalities: relationships between Elizabeth and her ministers. Relationships between Elizabeth and Parliament
Challenges to Elizabeth’s church settlement from Puritans and Catholics in England
The extent to which England had achieved stable relations with foreign powers by 1571; the impact of attempts to expand English trade in the Americas; the impact of the Pope’s excommunication of Elizabeth
Internal challenges to Elizabeth’s security, including the crisis of 1562 and the Northern Rebellion of 1569
Defending Against Internal and External Enemies
The political authority of Elizabeth I: the role of ministers and factions; the problem of the succession; relations between Crown and Parliament; government in the localities
The impact of Presbyterianism and radical Puritans; the impact on English Catholics of Mary Stuart’s presence in England and the influence of missionary priests and Jesuits; the dangers from internal Catholic rebellion against Elizabeth; Catholic plots and the role of Mary Stuart
The impact of war in the Netherlands on English foreign policies; negotiations for a French marriage alliance; overseas trade and plans for colonization; the origins of war with Spain in 1585; the threat of foreign invasion and the defeat of the Armada
The Last Years of Elizabeth, 1589–1603
The extent to which Elizabeth I’s authority was declining in the 1590s; factions at court – the influence of Robert Cecil and the Earl of Essex; relations between Crown and Parliament
Divisions among English Catholics; the growing influence of Puritanism; the religious situation at the accession of James I in 1603
The course of the continuing war with Spain; Elizabeth’s policies in Ireland.
The threat of economic crisis and social disorder and the efforts by central and local government to contain this threat; continuing doubts over the succession; the Essex rebellion; the extent to which political and religious unity had been achieved by 1603