Where an utteranace from a speaker leads directly to a response from another. These are key building blocks in conversation.
Where adjacency pairs are liked allowing conversation to proceed like the links in a chain, until one speaker initiates a topic shift/transition or the conversation ends. This is the structural principle on which all conversations develop.
Where a speaker hesitates, makes a false start and self-corrects, or uses a filler.
Are not a sign that the speaker is inarticulate. They act as filled pauses to allow thinking time between utterances.
A hedge is a filler which softens the force with which something is said, often because the speaker is reluctant or embarassed to say something.
Where speaker A uses words and phrases, or makes a sound to give feedback to speaker B. Feedback is the green light of conversation.
These are words or phrases that mark boundaries in the conversation between one topic and the next.
Where utterances have a purely social function assigned to initiate or encourage conversation.