- Transactional - getting something done
- Expressive - giving expression to feelings
- Performative - accompanying an action with a 'set' form of words e.g. like a christening
- Instructional - giving information about how to do something
- Referential - conveying factual knowledge
- Phatic - socialising through small talk
- Persuasive - advocating a point of view, trying to change someone's mind
- Be truthful - quality
- Be brief - quantity
- Be relevant to context of situation - relevance
- Be clear and unambiguous - manner
Varieties of spoken language:
- Dialect - form of language with own distinct lexis, grammar and pronunciation. Most commonly used to describe regional forms of a language e.g. cockney
- Sociolect - form of language associated with particular social group defined by either age e.g. teenagers, occupation e.g. lawyers or lifestyle e.g. rock musicians
- idiolect - term for individuals unique way of speaking
- Never impose on receiver
- Always give options to receiver
- Always make receiver feel good
- Following conventions of turn taking - no hogging or butting in
- Use of terms of address appropriate to the others' status
- Speaking in a way that accurately reflects the social relationship with the other person
- Using a register in keeping with the context of the conversation
Voices in speech and writing
1) Spontaneous Conversations:
- Social situation: where and how does this influence?
- Relationship between participants?
- Age and gender of participants?
2) E- communication:
- Chat room conversation
- Online diary (blog)
- Texts messages
- Patterns in emails?
- Why send instead of telephoning or texting?
- Features resembling spoken conversation?
- Features resembling writing?
Chat room conversation:
- Typical features of spoken mode?
- Typical features of written mode?
- How does the fact that they are not face to face impact?
- How does the fact that the conversation is not private impact?
- How are voices influenced by unknown invisible audience
- How is voice influenced by asynchronous interaction?
- How does the idea that the ppts are not receiving simultaneous feedback as they would face to face impact on the blog?
3) Live speech broadcasts:
- Sports commentary
- Talk show
- Phone-in programme
Television talk shows:
- How does the structure reflect context?
- Difference between voices (registers too) between people
- Extent to which interview seem formal or informal
- Balance of power between participants