AS English - ELLA 2

Features of speech, structural devices, utterances and sentence types.

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  • Created by: jamie
  • Created on: 05-05-10 19:04

Types of Utterance

Phatic

"Small talk" - casual and social speech.

For example:

"How are you?"

"It's nice weather today"

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Types of Utterance

Expressive

Words expressing someone's feelings.

For example:

"I'm so upset!"

"You've made me really happy today"

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Types of Utterance

Directive

Do this! - demanding that someone does something

For example:

"Go to bed!"

"Go and tell the teacher"

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Types of Utterance

Transactional

Getting something done.

For example:

"I'm just going out to get some milk"

"I'll tell him when i see him"

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Types of Sentence

Interrogative

Questions - including rhetorical questions

For example:

"What time is it?"

"Who do you think you are?!"

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Types of Sentence

Declaritive

A general statement giving information

For example:

"I have green eyes"

"I went to the park yesterday"

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Types of Sentence

Exclamative

Making an exclamation - statement with surprise or other emotions

For example:

"He was stabbed last week!"

"3-0 to Arsenal!"

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Types of Sentence

Imperative

Do this! - saying you must do something

For example:

"They must win 3 more games to stay up"

"You need to go and get cleaned up"

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Repetition

Using the same word/phrase more than once to create an emphasis on something.

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Ellipsis

Joining words together - usually with apostrophes

For example:

did not.....didn't

it is...........it's

are not.....aren't

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Fillers

Words which have no particular meaning or purpose in a sentence, but give the speaker time to plan what they're going to say

For example:

"Well..."

"You know..."

"I mean..."

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Filled Pauses

"Sounds" made which give the speaker time to think about what to say

For example:

"erm"

"err"

"umm"

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Contracted forms / Verbal Contractions

Words which are shortened

For example:

"them.....'em"

"because.....'cause"

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Emphasis

When a word or a point is made to stand out more than the others

For example, through repetition, the stressing of certain words and phrases.

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Recycling

when speaker starts talking and reaches a point where he/she can't find the right word, and "stammers" before correcting themselves.

For example:

"it's on the...th...the computer desk"

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

False Start

Changing from one grammatical construction to another ( self-correction)

For example:

"I thought I was....you were supposed to go?"


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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Topic Shifters

An utterance that moves the conversation onto a new subject/topic

For example:

"by the way..."

"so..."

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Features of Spontaneous Speech

Topic Loop

An utterance which returns the conversation to an earlier subject/topic

For example:

"Anyway..."

"What were you saying?"

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Structural devices (prepared speech)

Contrast and Antithesis

When two things are used which do not match together, and disagree with each other, but work together to give a particular viewpoint

For example:

"The world is living, but dead"

remember - forget, little - large, add - detract

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Structural devices (prepared speech)

Tripling

Three-part lists, including the rule of three

For example:

"A big, fat and ugly...."

"Tony Blair: 'education, education, education' "

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Structural devices (prepared speech)

Adjacency Pairs

Two sentences or phrases which correspond to each other, such as questions and answers, and

For example:

Person1: "What time is it?"

Person2: "It's 3 O'clock."

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Structural devices (prepared speech)

Grice's Maxims

The four aspects of a conversation which makes the conversation work:

  • Quality - are they being truthful?
  • Quantity - do they both say the same amount?
  • Relation - is what they say relevant to the conversation?
  • Manner - are they being clear with what they say?
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Comments

James Chapman

great help!

Robyn Ashcroft

seriously the most helpful thing ever :D

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