- Based on women having fewer children and at later ages
- Women want to pursue a career and travel due to various different life paths now available to them
- There is a rising symmetry in gender roles
- The percentage of people aged 18-35 still living at home with their parents is increasing, especially in Eastern European countries
- The invention of small domestic engines such as washing machines, hoovers, dishwashers etc has enabled women to have more spare time allowing them to work.
- There are increasing divorce rates and partnership dissolutions
- Partnership dissolution and divorce's lead to non-family living or one-person households.
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Comparing the 1st and 2nd Demographic Transitions
- In the first demographic transition there was an increasing number of people getting married
- People were getting married at younger ages
- Divorce was rare in the first DT.
- High levels of remarriage in the event of divorce or widowhood
- In the second demographic transition there is a decline in the number of people getting married.
- People are getting married later at older ages
- Divorce rates are increasing
- Large proportion of cohabitation living
- Remarriage is rarer than in the first DT
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Decreasing Fertility Levels
- Fertility rates have dropped below replacement level in many countries
- This is due to effective contraception becoming increasingly more reliable and accessible
- Lots of women are now not having children until the age of 30 or above
- This leads to postponement effects where there is a drop in fertility levels due to women postponeing their childbearing
- This can be counterbalnced in certain countries such as the US or UK due to high rates of teenage pregnancy
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Dual Earner Couples
- The traditional male bread-winner system has transformed into dual earner couples.
- This has lead to the emergence of stay-at-home dad's and female bread-winner's.
- Certain roles have emerged to help women balance work and family life.
- These roles include...
- After school clubs
- Men's involvement in housework and childcare
- Part-time work
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- Micro changes happen on an individual level
- Women have aspirations and career goals that they want to fulfill before settling down and having children
- Women have more autonomy and independence
- They have more sexual freedom due to effective contraception so do not need to worry so much about the risk of becoming pregnant
- Women are often more reluctant now to commit to long-term relationships
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- Macro changes happen on a contextual or societal level
- Modernisation has lead to women having lots of different life paths available to them
- The spread of televised information has encouraged women to do things such as travel while thye are young before settling down to have children
- Health and medical technology
- Transportation has allowed women to travel more for relatively cheap costs
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- The lowest-low fertility rate is a TFR of 1.3 or below
- This has emerged in many countries in Southern, central and Eastern Europe
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- More and more women are now continuing in further education such as going to University to help them pursue their career goals
- Research has found that women with higher qualifications (above GCSE's or O-Levels) are less likely to have their first birth out of a live-in partnership.
- They are less likely to become a lone-mother
- Less likely to dissolve a relationship
- Likely to have children at older ages
- Women who do not have higher qualifications are more likely to have their first birth outside of a live-in partnership
- They are more likely to be lone-mothers
- They are likely to have children at an earlier age
- And are more likely to dissolve a relationship
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