The Second Demographic Transition

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  • Based on women having fewer children and at later ages
  • Women want to pursue a career and travel due to various different life paths now available to them
  • There is a rising symmetry in gender roles
  • The percentage of people aged 18-35 still living at home with their parents is increasing, especially in Eastern European countries
  • The invention of small domestic engines such as washing machines, hoovers, dishwashers etc has enabled women to have more spare time allowing them to work.
  • There are increasing divorce rates and partnership dissolutions
  • Partnership dissolution and divorce's lead to non-family living or one-person households.
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Comparing the 1st and 2nd Demographic Transitions

  • In the first demographic transition there was an increasing number of people getting married
  • People were getting married at younger ages
  • Divorce was rare in the first DT.
  • High levels of remarriage in the event of divorce or widowhood
  • In the second demographic transition there is a decline in the number of people getting married.
  • People are getting married later at older ages
  • Divorce rates are increasing
  • Large proportion of cohabitation living
  • Remarriage is rarer than in the first DT
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Decreasing Fertility Levels

  • Fertility rates have dropped below replacement level in many countries
  • This is due to effective contraception becoming increasingly more reliable and accessible
  • Lots of women are now not having children until the age of 30 or above
  • This leads to postponement effects where there is a drop in fertility levels due to women postponeing their childbearing
  • This can be counterbalnced in certain countries such as the US or UK due to high rates of teenage pregnancy
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Dual Earner Couples

  • The traditional male bread-winner system has transformed into dual earner couples.
  • This has lead to the emergence of stay-at-home dad's and female bread-winner's.
  • Certain roles have emerged to help women balance work and family life.
  • These roles include...
  • Grandparents
  • Nursery
  • After school clubs
  • Men's involvement in housework and childcare
  • Cleaners
  • Part-time work 
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Micro Changes

  • Micro changes happen on an individual level
  • Women have aspirations and career goals that they want to fulfill before settling down and having children
  • Women have more autonomy and independence
  • They have more sexual freedom due to effective contraception so do not need to worry so much about the risk of becoming pregnant
  • Women are often more reluctant now to commit to long-term relationships
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Macro Changes

  • Macro changes happen on a contextual or societal level
  • Modernisation has lead to women having lots of different life paths available to them
  • The spread of televised information has encouraged women to do things such as travel while thye are young before settling down to have children
  • Health and medical technology 
  • Transportation has allowed women to travel more for relatively cheap costs
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  • The lowest-low fertility rate is a TFR of 1.3 or below
  • This has emerged in many countries in Southern, central and Eastern Europe
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Women's Education

  • More and more women are now continuing in further education such as going to University to help them pursue their career goals
  • Research has found that women with higher qualifications (above GCSE's or O-Levels) are less likely to have their first birth out of a live-in partnership.
  • They are less likely to become a lone-mother
  • Less likely to dissolve a relationship
  • Likely to have children at older ages
  • Women who do not have higher qualifications are more likely to have their first birth outside of a live-in partnership
  • They are more likely to be lone-mothers
  • They are likely to have children at an earlier age
  • And are more likely to dissolve a relationship
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