Immigration Impacts

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  • Brain drain for sending countries
  • Italy and Spain have recently become migration receiving countries
  • Women now account for about half of all migrants globally
  • There has been an exponential increase of people migrating to the UK
  • 61% of people migrating to the UK move to London
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Social Impacts

  • Multiculturalism
  • Benefits to culture e.g. arts, cuisine etc
  • Segregation
  • Fear and prejudice, especially within the Muslim minority
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Economic Impacts

  • Increases the size of the economy
  • Contributes towards tax that goes to the government
  • Unskilled migrants fill undesireable jobs
  • Skilled migrants fill desireable job gaps
  • Cheap labour
  • Increase in female labour participation
  • Add's to the workforce which may be declining in ageing populations
  • However, fiscal impacts of migration is almost zero
  • Immigrants tend to be poorer than natives
  • Their wages are often too low for them to pay tax
  • They may claim benefits or social housing - asylum seekers
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Fertility and Immigration

  • Immigrants tend to have a higher fertility than native women
  • For example immigrants in France have a TFR of 2.5 whereas native women in France have a TFR of 1.65
  • Make up for below replacement fertility 
  • First generation migrants tend to have children earlier than native women
  • Second generation migrants tend to adapt their fertility patterns to those of native women
  • The net effect of fertility of migrants on overall fertility is modest
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Population Ageing and Immigration

  • Migrants tend to be younger than native populations
  • Replaces working age in countries with an ageing population e.g. Italy
  • Helps halt demographic timebomd as it increases the number of contributors for the increasing demand of pensions
  • However, in a few decades, migrants themselves will age
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Control Over Immigration

  • The governments control over immigration is limted by various factors such as...
  • People who live in countries which are members of the EU are free to move to any other EU country
  • Asylum seekers who satisfy the requirements
  • Family reunification
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Efforts Made to Reduce Asylum Migration

  • Naming more countries as safe
  • Extending visa requirements
  • New detection facilities to check rates
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Current Policy Issues on Immigration

  • Increasing integration
  • Promoting immigration of skilled workers
  • Reducing illegal migration
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