The Road to Unification


Italy in 1815-The Treaty of Vienna

  • The Great Powers adopted two principles at the Treaty; principle of legitimacy, all rulers who had been deposed by the French and Napoleon could return, creating a barrier of states against the French. Second principle (after 1815), was the maintenance of status quo and the repression of revolution. 
  • Piedmont was given Savoy and Nice to act as a buffer zone. Increased land and population. 
  • Austria was handed two wealthy provinces of Lombardy and Venetia, Metternich could now influence the entire peninsula. 
  • Habsburg dukes appointed to rule the duchies of Tuscany, Parma, Modena and Lucca. Followed Austrian direcion invariably. 
  • The Bourbons were restored in Naples and Sicily. Ferdinand I (moderate liberal) was kinf in 1815, but Austrian influence dominated after 1821. 
  • Central Italy was dominated by the Papal States, governed by Popu Pius VII, he was restored in 1814 and 1815 recieved the states in full. 
  • Metternich wanted to create an Italian Federation, with Austria at the head, prevented by king of Naples and the Pope. 
  • Most Italian states followed Austrian lead, keeping Italy divided so that Austria could dominate. 
  • Only Piedmont and Papal States could resist, but they needed military help in the revolutions. 
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The Revolt in Naples

  • July 1820, a revolt was led by General Pepe. Used the Spanish constitution of 1812 as the model he demanded. 
  • The constitution provided for a limited monarchy which governed through ministers subject to parliament control. 
  • Suffrage was determined by property qualification. There was no special provision for the Church or nobility in parliament. 
  • Pepe drew support from the militia, formed in 1818 to provide protection for travellers. 
  • Many members were the Carbonari (charcoal burners)-a secret society set up to fight French.
  • The constitution was granted by King Ferdinan on 9th July, but many groups carried on demanding redress for grievances. 
  • Aristocracy demanded the return of land confiscated under French rule. Business classes protested of excess bureaucracy and everyone else about the brigands attacking travellers. 
  • This gave Metternich the excuse to intervene. In Martch 1821 Austrian troops sent to Naples, the revolt collapsed. Austrtian influence now took hold. 
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The Revolt in Piedmont

  • 3 days after the collapse of the revolt in Naples, there were mutinies in the Piedmontese army, demands for a constitution and war with Austria. 
  • Great Powers were meeting at the Congress of Laibach, Metternich was able to convice them to intervene if Victor Emmanuel gave way. 
  • The King decided to abdicate and passed throne to Charles Felix (brother). Charles Albert, the Regent, proclaimed a constitution, but he was exiled when the King sought Austrian help. 
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Effects of the revolts

  • Gave Metternich an excuse to intensify secret agent use in Italy. Police were brought increasingly under Austrian control, and spies sent to all states. 
  • Sorrespondence was opened, informers and agents were used to root out dissidents. 
  • Rebels fled abroad, continuing to work for revolution, but no longer in contact with the locals. 
  • They looked for support from foreign countries, most obviously France. After the July revolution of 1830, France was regarded as a 'Liberal' state. 
  • Further small scale revolts in the Duchies and Central Italy in 1831, but they were easily crushed by the Austrian troops. 
  • There was little or no cooperation between rebels in different Italian states. 
  • In Naples, requests from two papal enclaves to unite with the kingdom, were rejected. No attempt to unify in the Duchies.  
  • Italy was a geographical expression, nothing more. 
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  • Went into exile in 1831 along with other rebels, in July organised a meeting in Marseilles, he formed Young Italy. 
  • Wanted complete independence for the whole peninsular. Mazzini believed this could only be achieved by total devotion to the cause, uniting all people in a National effort. 
  • Abandoned all forms of secrecy except for the names of members. 
  • Virtually invented a new form of nationality. Claiming a nation had a moral purpose. He believed citizens should have equal political and civil rights. 
  • He believed in the perfection of humanity, by tthe creation of a brotherhood of nations, in 1834 he founded Young Europe in Switzerland. 
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How effective were Mazzini and Young Italy?

  • He created the concept of Italian nationalism. 
  • Published a vast amount of writings, all of which devoted to Italian nationalism. 
  • Metternich thought he was 'the most dangerous man in Europe' he was attackin gthe dnastic rights dominating Europe. 
  • He lived out of Italy after 1831 and was out of touch with events and people. 
  • His ideas too revolutionary for most of his own supporters. His pronouncements had little relevance to their everyday lives and problems. 
  • Convinced republicans are unlikely to get whole-hearterd support from any Italian states and would be very unpopular with Papacy. 
  • Many Italians saw him as almost suicidal in his determination.
  • Moderate righters (inbetween republicanism and status quo) accepted that existing rulers would have to play a part in the creation of an independant Italy. 
  • Vincenzo Giobertie published 'On the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians' in Brussels in 1843, emphasising Italies great traditions and the role in western civilization. 
  • He highlighted the significance of Rome and the Papacy and suggested that Italy should be a federation headed by the Pope. He appeared to believe that the King of Piedmont should be the leading figure in a campaign to drive out the Austrians. 
  • 1844, Cesare Balbo called upon Piedmont to annex Lombardy-Venetia and Romagna.  
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The Italian States in the 1840s

  • Austrian influence still paramount, every revolution since 1815 crushed. 
  • After a revolt in 1837 Ferdinand II (since 1830) became more repressive and centralised the Two Sicilies. 
  • Piedmont, ruled by Charles Albert, was essentially French and was trying to gain from France. 
  • Also a conservative and the Church had more influence in Piedmont than any other Italian state. Censorship was extreme.
  • Papal states ruled by Pope Gregory XVI (since 1831), in the same year revolution broke out demanding removal of priests from government and administration. 
  • Gregory forced to call for Austrian military support. Austrians withdrew but were recalled in 1832, Gregory became an out spoken critic of revolution. 
  • Attacked revolutionaries in Belgium, France and Poland, and ordered Catholics to obey the secular authority. 
  • Duchy of Tuscany was ruled by Leopold II since 1825, and allowed considerable liberty for the press. 
  • Political exiles were allowed to settle in the duchy, and theatres were allowed to perform plays critical of Austrian influence. Florence was the most liberal of the states. 
  • Unrest in 1845-6 led to administrative reforms and in 1847, creation of National Guard. Middle Class militia force, seen as a defence against absolutism. 
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Seeds of revolution

  • Unrest in Tuscany (mid 40s) first sign of upheaval that was to take place. 
  • 1845-7 was a series of bad harvests. Shortages in all Europe and prices rose. 
  • In northern Italy beginnings of an industrial revolution. Working people forces closer together. 
  • Created friction and weren't under the control of 'traditional betters'. 
  • Increasing significance of the working class noted by Marx and Engels, the Communist League founded in 1846. 
  • General belief that representative government, e.g. a constitution, would solve many ills. 
  • Beliefs magnified when Pope Pius IX, eleted in 1846, released 1,200 political prisoners. 
  • he then relaxed censorhip, lowered tariffs and encouraged economic development, e.g. railways. In October 1847 he called for an elected assembly to discuss further reforms. 
  • Suggested a customs union, along the lines of German Zollverein, and was considering a federation with him as the head. 
  • Pius was no revolutionary, he was trying to put right some wrong perpetrated by his last two predecessors. 
  • Believed the representative government was incompatible with papal authority. 
  • Pius was also definitely not prepared to lead a crusade against Austrian influence. 
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Piedmont taking the lead against Austria

  • Many Italians regarded Piedmont as a backward stated in the 1830s. 
  • Influence of the Church felt verywhere and censorhip was enforced rigorously. Liberals driven out. 
  • Charles Albert was a determined opponent of nationalism, regarding it an attack on monarchy. 
  • He began a programme of modernisation at the same time. Tariffs redued, some railways and canals built, army improved and the legal system was reformed. 
  • In 1842 an Agricultural Society was set up, becomming a forum for liberal discussion. 
  • Charles Albert did not intend to carry out any political changes, but got involved anyway. 
  • In the 1840s hopes of extending Piedmontese territory into France came to an ense. Expansion could only go to Austria. Began to see himself as leader of an Italian Federation. 
  • In 1847 Charles Albert protested at Metternichs decision to deal with unrest in Modena and the Papal states. At the same time he made it clear he would never grant a constitution. 
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The revolutions of 1848

  • First revolution took place in Palermo in Sicily (12 January). Ferdinand II unpopular because he merged the governments of Sicily and Naples. 
  • Famine in 1846-47 and failed revolts in Messina and Reggio di Calabria. When Mazzinians organised a demonstration, it turned into a revolt demanding the Spanish Constitution of 1812. 
  • Main supporters were at first poor, but were joined by wealthier classes. 
  • On 29 January Ferdninand II offered a constitution to the whole kingdom, but was rejected in Sicily. 
  • The Sicilians may have supported a federation. 
  • Ferdinand's reaction was taken as a model by rulers over Italy, to grant a constitution instead. 
  • Under Austrian rule, Lombardy was the most economically and educationally advanced area in Italy. But rule was rigid. 
  • There was a state monopoly on tobacco and brandy. Many Germans in the administration and much revenue was used to support Austrian rule in other parts of the Empire. 
  • Unrest broke out in milan in January after the sicilian revolt. Austrians reacted harsly, 61 people killed. 
  • In February, the revolution in Paris and the fall of Metternich encouraged further action. 
  • 17-22 March, Austrian garrison was driven out and a provisional government was formed
  •  Austrian garrisons had been force out of all cities in Lombardy, Venetia and the Duchies. 
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Piedmont's involvement

  • Unrest in Sicily and Lombary inevitably spread to Piedmont. There were riots in Genoa and demands for reforms from the Turin city council, and a journalist, Count Cavour. 
  • Charles Albert gave way in March and granted a constitution, the Statuto, creating a parliament and gave vote to 2.5% of the population. King retained power to veto all legislation and appoint minsters. 
  • Charles Albert declared war on Austria and marched into Lombardy. He was determined to avoid Tuscany taking the lead in the fight, as he was to support the Lombards. 
  • He wanted to avoid Lombardy becoming a republic.
  • Charles Albert was unpopular in Lombardy, regarded a traitor to liberalism. 
  • Insisted that Lombardy and Venetia become parts of the Kingdom of Piedmont. 
  • Charles Albert advances too slowly, unprepared for war. He had 100,000 troops against 70,000 Austrians. 
  • In July, Piedmontese forces were defeated by the Austrians at Custozza and Charles Albert signed an armistice. He refused Lombard demands to ask for French support. The Lombard revolution collapsed. 
  • Charles Albert invaded Lombardy one more in March 1849, but was defeated at Novara. Abdicating the same night. 
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Why did the other revolutions fail?

  • The secession of Sicily allowed the king to regain control by focusing on the reconquest of the island. The constitution was revoked in May 1848, and Sicily was invaded and occupied in May 1849. 
  • Venice set up a republic led by Daniel Manin, surviving until 1849. Beeseiged by the Austrians after Novara, and finally surrendered on 22 august. 
  • In the Papal States the ministers supported Piedmont, and sent troops to fight the Austrians, but Pius IX attacked the war and called for all Catholics to oppose revolution. 
  • Elections resulted in an Assembly, ********* the Pope of his political power, and in March 1849, Mazzini was appointed to lead a Roman Republic. He was joined by Garibaldi. 
  • Roman Republic lasted until July 1849, when it was overwhelmed by foreign armies, the French forces. 
  • It was faced by four invading armies after the Pope appealed for help.
  • Mazzini's ideas held little appeal to working people/peasants, making up the bulk of the population. He talked of sacrifice and hard work, but offered little social reform. 
  • Revolutions elsewhere had collapses and there were no offers of help. 
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Why did the revolutions of 1848-49 fail?

  • Different motives for revolution.
  • Divisions between Sicily and Naples.
  • In Lombardy and Venetia the revolts were essentially republican. 
  • Charles Albert in Piedmont anted territorial expansion. 
  • In Rome, Mazzini wanted to end Catholic Church influence. 
  • The great majority of people were more concerned with local issues than they were with nationalism. 
  • In many parts of Italy the great mass of working people and peasants were very poor, they just cared of food. 
  • There was no concept of Italian nationalism, Mazzini wanted a secular republic but most rulers favoured a federation. 
  • Lombardy and Venetia were forced to accept Piedmontese monarch, to gain military support. 
  • Only state capable of challenging the Austrians was Piedmont, but Charles Albert was too slow and indecisive in 1848. 
  • Italy had lacked a leader who could unit its different people and a common ideal, under which they could unite.   
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  • Events in 1848-49 convincd many liberals that Italy needed Piedmont to beat the Austrians. 
  • Dniel Manin declared he would support the Piedmontese monarchy in 1855.
  • National Society set up in 187 campaigned for Italian unity under Piedmontese leadership. This became much more important after Plombieres. 
  • In the 1850s the leadership of Piedmont was in the hands of Caour. 
  • Cavours was convinced that foreign help would be essential if the Austrians were to be defeated. This help could only come from France. 
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What did Cavour do for Piedmont?

  • Cavour introduced modern farming methods on his estates and encouraged the development of baking and railways.
  • Supported the creation of a Piedmontese constitution, granted in 1848. 
  • In 1850 he was the author of a Bill which reduced the power of the Catholic Church, and abolished the Church courts. 
  • He supported the Siccardi Laws, which ablolished Curchi courts and reduced the number of holy days. 
  • In 1850 Cavour became a government minister for agriculture and commerce, but later also for the navy and finance. He raised taxes to build more railways. 
  • He introduced reforms which made the army more democratic. 
  • He arranged commercial treaties with Austria, Britain And France and invited foreign banks to invest in Piedmont. 
  • In 1852 he became PM, his aim was to make Piedmont a strong, modern country.
  • Cavour was not popular in Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel II didn't like him because he did not come from the traditional elite. 
  • The Church opposed his restrictions on ecclesiastical influence, espescially his support for the aolition of monasteries in 1855. 
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What else did Cavour do for Piedmont?

  • Working people disliked the increases in taxes to pay off the debts in the war of 1848-9.
  • Cavour's position rested on his ability to control parliament, where most deputies were upper middlce class liberals like himself. 
  • He emphasised the importance of parliament y insisting on speaking in Italian. By encouraging debates, by being good-humoured and by handling business efficiently. 
  • At the same time he was quite prepared to use underhand methods to crush opponents. The civil service was used to elect government supporters. Opponent had theit elections quahsed and newspapers were bribed to support his policies. 
  • He did not want to see Piedmont submerged in Italy, so opposed nationalism. 
  • Disliked Mazzini intensely because he believed he was irrespondible and attracted hostility abroad. 
  • Cavour wanted to drive the Austrians out of Lombard and Venetia in the cause of Piedmontese expansion, not for Italy Unity. 
  • He was not above using Italian nationalism in his efforts to defeat Austria. 
  • By 1856 he was regarded as the most likely leader to defeat Austria, and was recieving varying degrees of support from all of Italy, even republicans. 
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How did Cavour set about defeating Austria?

  • By the mid 1850s Cavour was planning a war with Austria. He sent Piedmontse troops to support Britain and France in the Crimea. 
  • The troops were of little value but his support gained him a place at the conference table in Paric, 1856, and the attention of Napoleon III.
  • Cavour's speech at the peace conference was reported in French newspapers, he recieved a good deal of attention and a great deal of sympathy. 
  • Napoleon wanted to help Italy to cripple Austria. 
  • Cavour encrouages Napoleon's support by appearing to adopt conservative tactics in Piedmont. Mazzini was condemned to death and radical ministers were forced to resign.
  • After the Orsini Plot (January 1858) Cavour made every effort to cath the conspirators. 
  • Napoleon invited Cavour to meet him at Plombieres in July 1858, the deal was done. Piedmont would provoke an Austrian attack in the spring of 1859.
  • Napoleon would come to the aid of the Piedmontese and Lombard and Venetia would be given to Piedmont. 
  • The Duchies would be allowed to form an Italian federation headed by the Pope. 
  • Napleon wanted Savoy and Nice as payment, a formal treaty signed in January 1859.
  • The Piedmontese press was flooded with anti-Austrian propaganda.
  • Convinced the Austrians that an attack was imminent and Garibaldi supported monarchy.
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Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • In 1833 he joined Young Italy and met Mazzini in Genoa. Vowed to free Italy from Austrians.
  • In February 1834, took part in a failed revolt in Piedmont and fled abroad. Sentenced to death.
  • Ended up in Souh America, fought for revolutionaries in Brazil and Uruguay until 1846. 
  • 1847 made an offer to the Pope to fight for liberation, he returned home after the Sicilian revolt.
  • Turned down to help Charles ALberts, so Garibaldi led volunteers to support the PG in MIlan.
  • After Novara, Garibaldi went to the defence of the Roman Republic, and took command of its army. He defeated a larger French force. 
  • After the collapse of the republic he fled north and escaped to the USA, returned to Italy in 1854, buying half the island of Carprera off north Sardinia. 
  • In 1859 he volunteered to fight for Piedmont and was appointed Major-General. Led a volunteer force and won several victories against the Austrians. 
  • In April 1860 Garibaldi sent his 1,000 to Sicily to liberate it, instead of Nice.
  • Later crossed into Naples, defeating the Neapolitcan force, and marched towards the Papal States. His invasion thwarted Cavout, who sent the Piedmontese army to help the Papal States. 
  • Garibaldi surrendered his conquests to Victor Emmanuel at Teano in October 1860.
  • Led further attempts to unite Italy in 1862.
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Victor Emmanuel II

  • Accepted Cavour as PM and allowed him considerable freedom in Piedmontese affairs. 
  • Allowed the constitution to remain force, and this in turn allowed Cavour to retain his ascendancy.
  • Followed Cavour's lead in the events o 1858-59 but intervened in affairs after the battle of Solferino. 
  • He insisted accepting the terms of the Reaty of Villafrance and refused Cavour's demand to fight on alone. Cavour resigned in protest. 
  • Also decided to lead the Piedmontese army into the Papal States to meet Garibaldi in person. 
  • He knew Garibaldi was loyal to the Piedmontese monarchy, but did not want to risk upset. He knew Garibaldi hated Cavour for ceeding Nice to France. 
  • Gained Venetia in 1866 and Rome in 1870, in both he personally transferred the power. 
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Pope Pius IX

  • He raised the hopes of many liberals and nationalists when he was elected in 1846. 
  • Early reforms attracted the support of Garibaldi who offered to return with colunteers from South America to lead a crusade.
  • Nationalists who favoured a federation believed in Pope Pius IX.
  • He was a kindly man who wanted to right the wrongs done by his predecessors, but had no intention of surrendering his political power. 
  • He believed republicans were enemies of Catholicism and saw Mazzini as an Anti-Christ. 
  • In defence of his state and the Church he was prepared to summon foreign armies to defeat Italian Nationalists. Consequently, Garibaldi found himself facing forces from France, Spain, Austria and Naples. 
  • The papal forces were ill-equipped and were defeated at Castelfidalo in 1860 by the Piedmontese army, but the Pope could call for Napoleon III to help him.
  • From 1860 the Papal States were garrisoned by foreign troops, iincluding French forces, which saw off attacks by Garibaldi in 1862 and 1867. Rome finally became part of Italy in 1870, when the Franch garrison was withdrawn to fight in the Franco-Prussian War. 
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Austria and Piedmont

  • Piedmont seemed to offer no threat to Austria, because Charles Albert sought Austrian support against France. 
  • In 1848, revolution broke out all over the Austrian Empire. The most serious was Hungary and this was only surpressed with Russian support. 
  • After Charles Albert's failure to attack properly in 1849. He was busy with the Duchies and was prepared to allow Victor Emmanuel to sort out the problems in his kingdom. 
  • By 1851 all revolutions had been crushed and the Pope was back in Rome. Most military action was carried out by Austrian troops. 
  • Increasing Austrian influence gaver Italian liberals and nationalists a new focus. 
  • Support for Mazzini and republicanism idealism waned, while the Piedmontese monarchy and army became increasingly attractive. 
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Strengths and Weaknesses of Austria in Italy 1850s

  • The army was larger and more experienced than any Italian force. 
  • Italians were divided. Lombardy and Venetia strongly supported republicanism. Piedmont was a liberal monarchy, elsewhere support for a federation headed by the Pope. 
  • Most greviances were local. If the Autriancs could avoid antagonising large numbers of Italians, there would be little prospect of danger. 
  • Militarily, the Austrians couls always retreat and regroup on the Quadrilateraly, four fortresses (Verona, Legnano, Peschiera and Mantua) that supported each other on the border of Lombardy and Venetia. 
  • Austrian strengths depended on the maintenance of the status quo. They assumes there would be no significant changes in Italy. 
  • The emergence of Cavour completely changed the situation. 
  • The seizure of power by Napoleon III changed internation relations. He was anti-Austrian and was looking for internation successed enhancing his prestige at home. 
  • The appointed of Bismarck as Minister-President of Prussia in 1862 meant that Austrian leadership in Germany was under threat, it disappeared altogether in 1866. 
  • From being the dominant European power in 1815, Austria was rapidly becoming second rate. 
  • Austrian power collapses slowly. Lombardy was lost in 1859, and the plebiscites in the Duchies showed Italian opnion, and Venetia was lost in 1866 due to a defeat from Prussia. 
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Why did Napoleon want to help?

  • Wanted a dramatic foreign policy with successes that enhance his standing. 
  • Cavour's speech at the Paris Peace cConference in 1856 were very well recieved in France. 
  • He wanted to strike a blow at Austria and upset the balance of power.
  • He wanted to create a strong Northern Italian state that would be a counter-weight to Austria and prevent Austrian expansion.
  • He wanted the return of Nice and Savoy, taken from France in 1815. 
  • He did not want to create a unitedd Italy and he did not want Piedmont interfering in the affair of other Italian states. 
  • His aim was to replace Austria with a client state that would do France's bidding.
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What went wrong?

  • He was initially outwitte by Cavour, who wanted French manpower but didn't want to become dependant on Napoleon.
  • Napoleon allowed himself to be drawn into Italian affairs.
  • Napoleon imagined that it would be a short, sharp, and relatively bloddless campaign. He didn't note the resistance that the Austrians put up in 1848-49.
  • Napoleon rarely thought his foreign polucy decisions through. He was taken aback by the slaughter at Magenta and Solferino, when he toured the battlefield he was considering an armistice. 
  • He decided to withdraw when he heard that Prussian forces were massing on the Rhine and he feared reprisal. Prussia was an ally of Austria. 
  • French support for Piedmont led to protests from Britain, the were a war scare in 1859-60.
  • He was also warned that Cavour was secretly sending agents into the Duchies and the Papal States to prepare for the annexatio of Central Italy.
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The unification process

  • In March 1859 all Piedmontese army reserves were ordered to report for duty. Cavour sent agents into the Duchies to create unrest. 
  • he Austrians ordered Piedmont to stand down its army. Cavour rejected the ultimatum, and the Austrians invaded Piedmont. 
  • Napoleon expected and easy victory over the old-fashioned Austrian army and French forrces were sent to support the Piedmontese. 
  • Progress was slow, a costly victory was won at Magenta in June, but the Austrians were allowed to fall back on the Quadrilateral. 
  • A further victory was won at Solferino, even more bloody.
  • Napoleon was also concerned of the Prussian force gathering on the Rhine. 
  • Cavours agents stirred up unrest in the Duchies and Romagna, and the leaders werte driven out by popular risings. This was not Napoleon's plan.
  • The armistice was signed at Villafrance in July 1859, and confirmed at the Treaty of Zurich. Lombardy was handed over, Venetia remained Austrian. In the duchies, the Austrian rulers would be reinstated. 
  • Cavour resigned in protest at Villafrance after demanding Piedmont continue fighting alone. But Piedmont would have been devastated. 
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What happened to the Duchies?

  • The rebels invited Victor Emmanuel to be dictator for the war, then becoming independant. 
  • The Piedmontese government wanted to annex the Duchies and quickly arranged for plebiscites. The se took place in the presence of Piedmontese troops and resulted in large majorities in favour of union with Piedmont. 
  • Cavour offered to hand over Savoy and Nice, but only if they voted for union with France. Again there were held in presne of Piedmontese and French troops.
  • The hand over of Savoy and Nice took place without the agreement of Parliament, and was a serious crime on Cavour's part. 
  • Mazzini and Garibaldi condemned it, liberals in the Duchies, particularly Tuscany, were furious and lost faith in Cavour. 
  • Venetia and the Papal states were his next targets, he refused an offer from Sicilians to become involved with them.
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  • April 1860, Mazzinian agents stirred up a revolt against the king of Naples in Sicily. Mazzini had been outwitted by Cavour in the north and was trying to make up for lost ground in the south. 
  • In Piedmont GGaribaldi decided to go to the support of the people of Sicily. He planned to march to Nice to defend it against the French. 
  • The revolt was a local affair, but Garibaldi stole the march from Cavour and to force the pace of Italian nationalism. He set sail with 1,000 volunteers. 
  • Cavour disapproved of Garibaldi's actions but did not stop it, he was reluctant. Garibaldi wanted to prove foreign intervention was not required. 
  • By the end of May, Garibaldi has taken Palermo and was virtual dictator of Sicily. By the end of July, the king's forces had driven them out of Sicily.
  • Garibaldi hated Cavour but realised that Piedmont was essential to Italy. He respected Victor Emmanuel and was prepared to make him King of Italy.
  • Garibaldi was determined to invade the mainland and destroy the kingdom of Naples at least. 
  • Cavour tried to pre-empt Garibaldi by starting a revolt of his own in Naples, but in August he crossed to the Italian mainland, under the protection of the British Royal Navy. 
  • Within a month the city of Napled feel and Garibaldi was planning a march north to take Rome, completely uniting Italy.
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Cavour's intervention

  • Cavour knew that Garibaldi was loyal to the kingdom of Piedmont, and was not too concerned with the invasion of Sicily and Naples. 
  • But if Garibaldi attacked Rome, the French would almost certainly intervene. 
  • In September 1860, Cavour ordered the Pidmontese army to invade the Papal States and march south to meet Garibaldi, with Victor Emmanuel at its head. 
  • The Papal forces were defeated at Castelfidalo and Victor Emmanuel met Garibaldi at Teano. 
  • Garibaldi had no choice but to hand over all of his conquests to Victor Emmanuel. He regretted that they did not include Rome. Most of the Papal States broke awa from the Pope and voted for union with Piedmont. Naples and Sicily did the same. 
  • The kingdom of Piedmont was more than twice as big as it had been at the start of the year. 
  • In 1861, Victor Emmanuel became the first King of Italy. 
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Venice and Rome

  • Garibaldi retired to Carprera but didn't give up on Rome. 
  • In 1862 an attack on Rome was prevented by Piedmontese forces and Garibaldi was captured. 
  • The main aim of Piedmont was Venetia, support for annexation was strong. 
  • Bismarck, the Prussian Minister-President, was planning a war against Austria, and wanted Italian support to keep forces tied down in the sourthern border. (May 1866)
  • The next month the Prussians declared war on Austria. The Austrians wanted to keep the French out of the war and agreed to ceed Venetia no matter what the result. 
  • Italy declared war on Austria, but were heavily defeated in battle on land (Custozza) and at sea (Lissa) But the Prussian army defeated the Austrians easily.
  • Austrians forced to hand over Venetia, and it became a part of Italy. 
  • The capital was moved from Turin to Florence, and only Rome was leftr, protected by a French garrison. 
  • In 1870, France declared war on Prussia and French troops were withdrawn from Rome. 
  • After a short battle, the city was occupied y the Italian army, and it became a part of Italy in October. It was immediately proclaimed the capital. Italy was now a united country.
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