The Great Retreat: Women, family & education in Stalin's Russia

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  • Created by: Dracupine
  • Created on: 31-03-13 19:27

Reassertion of traditional gender roles & sexual a

  • 1930's: Value  of marraige re-emphasised

  • 1928: Wedding rings banned but reintroduced 1936
  • Marraige certificates printed on high quality paper1936

  • Party members rewarded (holiday homes...) if married with children
  • Husbands expected to be the main income earners & devoted to family
  • 1937:97% men & 82% women aged 30-39 married
  • Initial freedom following 1917 Revolution--- led to maily breakdowns
  • Traditional perspective on sexual morality introduced
  • 1934: Campaign peromoted sexual abstinence to soviet youth
  • 1936: Secret ban on sale of birth-control resources 
  • Imprisoned for 2 years if abort
  • Backed up by police action against women if 'immoral appearenve' (makeup, clothing....)
  • Collective farming--- medical virginity checks on young women
  • Incest, bigamy, adultrey and male homosexuality (legalised 1930--------re-criminalised 1936)
  • A.V. Malodetkin imprisoned for being married to 4 different women

  • Spiralling divorce rate 1937---2/3 Urban & 50% Rural
  • led to social problems--- orphans, women impoverished
  • COST............1st divorce= 50r.........2nd divorce- 150r.........3rd divorce= 300r
  • Men had to pay 1/3 of earnings to support children...60% if have 3+ children
  • IF men did not pay= imprisoned for 2 years
  • .
  • could track down absconding husbanvds through media's assistance
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  • Discipline, hardwork & tradition should be reaserted
  • 1920: children encouraged to question bourgeois authority
  • Soviet youth organised i.e. komsomol encouraged respect & love parents
  • Pavlik Morozov became Soviet Gov example of perfect child: hard working & obedient
  • Parents expected to teach children soviet education & respect Soviet Gov. 
  • 'Family duties in child-rearing are based on it's obligation to cultivate good citizens'
  • .
  • Stressed emphasis of Communist ideas to be educated
  • August 1931: Centrat Committee accused Soviet education of neglecting maths & literature
  • 1935: so published a series of text books i.e.history =Stalin's amazing change to education
  • History Books: Ivan thw Terrible & Peter the Great, more naturalistic, Russian nation instead of the working class
  • .
  • Cirrculum core subjects: reading, writing, Communist ideology & science
  • lots of homework & national examinations introduced
  • Disipline designed to prepare children for harsh regulations of the work place
  • under the Five-Year Plan= Strict Discipline
  • .
  • Olga= edorovna Leonova (Stakhanov Spitit) got her students amazing grades
  • Both teaching & learning influenced by methods in th Five-Year Plan
  • .
  • Money taken for education for Soviets. Could have grants
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