The Expression of Conflict
Non-Violent:- does not involve force or armed struggles. Statments fo discontent are made by word, sign, marching or silent protests. Some forms of non-violent protest have been very successful. In Ukraine, in 2004, thousands of people took to the streets of Kiev to demand political change. On the other hand, non-violent protest by large numbers of monks in Burma in 2007 was less successful, as it was met by forced opposition from governemtn-controlled forces.
Political:- realtes to groups operating within a country who seek to acquire and exert political poower through government. The groups/parties develop a political programme that defines their ideology ans sets out the agenda they would pursue should they win eective office or gain power through democratic means.
Political activity often invovled debate: the formal discussion of a motion before a deliberative body according to the rules of parliamentary procedure. This occurs when new laws are debated in the House of Commons in Britain, for example. It takes the form of a regulated discussion of a proposition between those if favour and those against.
The Expression of Conflict
Terrorism:- the systematic use of fear among the public as a way of trying to force the authorities into action for a political, or more frequently an ideological, end. International terrorism has become increasingly widespread. Bombings often by suicide bombers, have occured in places across the world.
Insurrection:- an act of revolt against civl authority or an established government, usually involving rebellion against the rule of that government. People engagin in insurrection are called insurgents, and typically engage in regular or guerilla combat against the armed forces of the established regime, or conduct sabotage and harassment in order to undermine the government's position.
War:- a state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations. The armed forces of the states involved are the main protagonists fo the conflict
Conflict resolution... the means by which conflict at a variety of scales can be brought to an end. The expression of conflict can resolve the conflict. Different forms of conflict can be resovled by differing means.
Causes of Conflict
Identity... a sense of belonging to a group or geographical area where there is the same generic character, or a similarity of distinguishing character or personality. It may be determined by, or be apparent in, ethnicity, language and relgion and is evident on a number of scales:
- Nationalism - loyalty and devotion to a nation. This can create a sense of national conciousness, exalting the nation above all others. The culture and interests of only that nation are promoted
- Regionalism - conciousness of, and loyalty to a disticnt region with a population that shares similarities. It can sometimes lead t the development of political or social systems based on one of more such area
- Localism - an affection for a particular place. Localism rarely manifests itself in a political sense. However, it can be demonstrated in 'nimbyism' which occurs when peple are reluctant to have their local area affected by developemtn for the national good.
Ethnicity - the grouping of people according to their ethnic origins or characteristics. In narrows terms, it describes the racial make-up of population (caucasoid, mongoloid, negroid or polynesian). More recently, the term has broadened in meaning to refer to groups of people classed according to one or more common racial, national, tribal, religious, lingiustic or cultural origins or backgrounds
Causes of Conflict
Culture - the customary beliefs, social norms and traits of a racial, religious or social group and the set of shared altitudes, values and practices that characterise that group. The origins of many groups are historical and may be lost in time. Hence, culture is something which groups of people are inherently proud, and which they seek to protect. Within the same nation, there are many variations in culture - diversity enriches the country
Territory - a geographical area belonging to, or under the jurisdiction of, a governmental authority. The territory may be an administrative subdivision of a country, or a geographical area development on an external government, but having some degree of autonomy (for example, a country which is a colonial possession). Conflict can occur where there is dispute about who does or should have authority over an area. This can happen in areas where there are low levels of population or where borders depend on natural phenomena.
Ideology - a systematic body of concepts regarding human life or culture. It can result in a set of integrated assertions, theories and aims that together constitute a sociopolitical programme. Some ideologies can be extreme and at odds with those elsewhere in the world and their supporters may seek to press their views on others by force. The western views of democracy and the alternative viems of the Taliban in Afghanistan, could both be described as ideologies
Patterns of Conflict
International - where conflict invovled the participation of more than one country
National - where the conflict takes place within a country
Regional - where conflict takes place within an area of one country or acrossthe borders fo one or more countries
Local - where the conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of the country