A2 Geography Revision- Conflict
By Ryan Lee
Origins of Conflict- Identity
•Identity is described as a sense of belonging to a group or geographical area where there is a similar generic character, similairty or distingusihing feature.
•This may be the ethnicity, langauge and religion.
•Conflict may arise when a group of people feel there identity is in danger
•Nationalism: loyalty and devotion to a nation. Only the interests and culture of that nation is promoted.
•Regionalism: consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region within that nation. This may lead to the development of a political or social system based on the areas.
•Localism: an affection for a particular place, often displayed through nimbysim (not in my back yard).
•Ethnicity is the grouping of people by there ethnic origin
•It determines whether the population is causoid, mongoloid, negroid or polynesian.
•More recently the term now encorparates groups of people under racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic and cultural origins or background
•Culture is the customary beliefs, social norms and traits of a racial, religious or social group.
•It is a group of shared attituted, values and practises.
•The origins of many groups are historical but may be lost in time.
•Groups of people are proud of their culture and they will try to protect it.
•Within countries there are many variations of cultures which may enhance the country.
•Territory is a geographic area belonging to or under a governing authority.
•The territory may be an administrative subdivision of a country, or a geographical area dependent on an external government, but may have some degree of autonomy.
•Conflict may occur when the authority of an area of land is questioned or changed.
•Ideology is a systematic body of concepts regarding human life or culture.
•It can result in a set of integrated assertions, theories and aims that together consitute a socio-political programme.
•Some ideologies can be extreme and at odds with those elsewhere in the world and their supporters may seek to press their views on others by force.
•Western society is typically individualistic using democracy, whereas in eastern societies they are usually collectivists and obey the rules dictators and groups.
•Western views and Eastern views typically differ greatly.
Patterns of Conflict
•International- where conflict involves the participation of more than one country
•National- where the conflict takes place within a country
•Regional- where conflict takes place within an area of one country, or across the borders of one or more countries.
•Local- where the conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of a country.
The Expression of Conflict
Non-violent conflict: Conflict that does not involve force or armed struggle. Conflict is displayed by word, sign, matching or silent protest. This has been successful in Ukraine which resulted in political changes.
Political activity: Political activity involves groups operating within a country who seek to aquire political power. The parties develop a political programme that defines their ideology and set out the agenda they would persue. It often involves debate between different parties and is undertaken in a political procedure.
Terrorism: This is a systematic fear among the public to force the authorities into political action for a political, ideological end. International terrorism has become increasingly widespread, in particular suicide bombings.
Insurrection: Insurrection is a revolt against civil authority, rebelling against the rules of that group or society. People involved in insurrection are known as insurgents, and they typically engage in regular combat against armed forces of the established regime, or conduct sabotage and harassment to undermine the governments position.
War: A state of open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations. The armed forces are the protagonists of the war.
Conflict resolution: is the way in which a conflict is resolved at different scales. The expression of conflict- debate, political activity, war can lead to resolution. The type of conflict will mean resolution will vary.
Conflict over the use of a local resource: The expansions of several airports are as well as in Cambridge they tried to introduce a Tesco's to mill road in Cambridge which was met with opposition.
Resolving conflict: These conflicts are resolved by market processes, planning processes or a combination.
Market processes: the ability of the organisation undertaking the project to pay the going rate takes precedence over any local concerns or national concerns. Objectors may not have the funds to outbid the developer and development goes ahead with minimum consolation. During consolation the opposition may voice objections, or purpose counter arguments, but do not have the right of an appeal.
Planning processes: are attempts to provide a means by which local authority planners. They listen to the local authority, listen to the organisation responsible for a proposal, and have overall development control.