Give examples of non-violent conflict expression.
Debate, boycotts, strikes and protests and demonstrations.
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What is a debate?
A formal discussion to exchnage opinions, and it often ends in a vote.
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What are boycotts?
Refusing to do something, such as refusing to buy a product.
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What are strikes?
Refusing to work.
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What are protests and demonstrations?
Groups of people publicly making their opinions heard and drawing attention to issues. They include protest marches and picketing.
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Give an example of a protest.
The Orange Revolution in the Ukraine between November 2004 and January 2005. This helped bring to power pro-Western President Viktor Yushchenko, who defeated his rival Viktor Yanukovych in a repeat run-off election.
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Give an example of a protest that turned violent.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. These strated peacefully led mainly by students and intellectuals, were ulimately qualled by the Chinese miliatry leaving more than 2,500 dead and attracting international criticism, a very violent outcome.
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What is important to recognise with conflict expression?
The nature of it may change over time. For example, the Basque militant group ETA, in April 2017, declared in a letter they were going to disarm, but this might be blocked by its enemies. This would mean going from violent to non-violent.
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Give an example of a strike.
Junior doctors strikes in 2016 in the UK. There were 5 24-hour strikes within the first 4 months. The BMA wanted everyone who works on a Saturday to be paid at 50% above the basic rate.
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What is political activity?
This includes supporting, opposing or creating a political party. The UK has a wide range of poliitcal parties (Labour) including the SNP and Plaid Cymru - nationalist parties.
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What are the characteristics of the UK's nationalist parties?
They have their own policies and ideologies and compete for the support of the public to win power. Some campaign to have their own government, such as the SNP.
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What is insurrection?
An organised rebellion with the aim of overthrowing a government. It often, but not always, involved violence. Those engaged are called insurgents and typically use guerilla tactics against the armed forces of an established regime.
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What is war?
A phemomenon of organised violent conflict between or sometimes within nations (a civil war) and is characterised by extreme aggression, serious disruption to societies and economies and high rates of mortality.
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Give an example of a conflict with many differing conflict expressions. What does this show?
The 'Arab Spring' of 2011. This shows how conflict can vary from country to country within the region, showing the complexity of conflict expression. There were 4 governments overthrown, 5 major protests, 4 minor proests and 4 civil wars in the after
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What is terrorism?
Using violence to intimidate people, usually with the aim of achieving a political goal. It can be described a crime of a holy duty - depending on one's point of view.
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Why is terrorism so hard to combat?
Due to the secretive nature and small size terrorist organisations, they often offer opponents no clear organisation to defend against or deter. Suicide attacks are an increasing from of terrorism. The March 2017 terrorist was not in a group.
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Where has terrorism seen to be an effective tactic?
For the weaker side in some conflicts, offering a frightening degree of coercive power at a fraction of the cost of miliatry force.
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'Arab Spring': Libya
There was a civil war and a government overthrow - overthrow of Gaddafi and killed by rebel forces. Government defeated by armed revolt with UN-mandated military intervention.
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'Arab Spring': Saudi Arabia
Minor protests, killing only 24.
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'Arab Spring': Morocco
There were governmental changes, killing only 6.
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'Arab Spring': Sudan
Major protests - President Bashir declaring he will not run for another term.
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Card 2


What is a debate?


A formal discussion to exchnage opinions, and it often ends in a vote.

Card 3


What are boycotts?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are strikes?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are protests and demonstrations?


Preview of the front of card 5
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