Nature and Origin of Conflict
Challenge - A task or issue that is perceived as being provocative or threatening to debate. The issues that arise from challanges often cause alternative view to be expressed usually in a peaceful manner but some issues may be extreme or polarised
Conflict- A state of disagreement caused by the percieved or actual opposition of needs,values an intrests between people. Geographically it is often about opposing views about the ways in which a resource may be developed or used. The result is negative tension between parties involved. Can result in war, harsh words or armed conflict. Ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people
Causes of Conflict
Identity- Identity is a sense of belonging to a group or geographical area where there is the same generic character. Examples are Ethnicity , language and religion
Nationalism - Loyalty and devotion to a nation
Regionalism - Loyalty and devotion to a distinct region that share similarities
Localism - An affection for a particular place rarely political
Ethnicity - The group of people according to their ethnic orgins or characteristics. National, tribal, religious, linguistic or cultural origins or background
Culture - Culture is the cutsomary beliefs, social norms and tratis of racial religious or social groups and the set of shared attiudes and values they follow
Territory - An geographical area under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. This area will have some autonomy. Conflict can occur over who has authority over the area.
Patterns of Conflict
International- Involves the participation of more than one country. Gaza *****, Afghanistan
National - Conflict that takes place within a country. Egypt politics President Mubarak
Regional - Conflict that takes place within an area of one country or across the borders of one or omore countries. North South Divide England.
Local - conflict is restricted to a small part of one region of a country. Sandyforth open cast mine.
Expression of Conflict
Non violent - Conflict of this nature does not involve force or armed struggle. Points are made by word signs marching and silent protests some are succesful however most end bad Ukraine 2004 Burma 2007
Political Activity - Groups within a country who seek to acquire and exert political power through government. Groups called parties have a certain ideology and agenda to win elective office. Often involves debate for laws for example the house of commons.
Terrorism - The systematic use of fear among the public as a way of trying to force the authorities into action for a political or ideological end. International terrorism has become increasingly more frequent in recent centuries.
Insurrection - An act or instance of revolt againist civil authority or an established government. Usuall involving a rebellion againist the rules of that government. People who take part are called insurgents and aremd conflict againist the armed forces of the regime is common
War - Declaring armed conflict between states or nations
This is the means by which conflict at a variety of scales can be brought to and end.
Sometimes this can involve the removal of the causes of conflict, but more than often it can involve negotiating to allow all parties to lie with some sort of comprimise over the problem.
Conflict resoloution Usually consists of a gradual process of talking and building trust, which in turn, tends to require an outside mediator
Tools of Conflict Resoloution
Negotiation Mediation Community Building Diplomacy
Teaching Prayer Counselling
In real world conflict many of these would be used to resolve the conflict