Contemporary conflicts and challenges


Causes of conflict

Identity: sense of belonging to a group or geographical area can be evident on many scales: nationalism, regionalism, localism
Ethnicity: the grouping of people according to their ethnic origins or characteristics.
Culture: the customary believes, social norms and traits of a racial, religious or social group and set of shared attitudes
Territory: geographic area belonging to a government authority.
Ideology: systematic body of concepts regarding human life or culture.

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Patterns of conflict

International, national, regional, local

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The expression of conflict

Non violent, political activity, terrorism, insurrection, war

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Conflict resolution

The means is the means by which conflict at a variety of scales can be brought to an end.

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Multiculturalism societies in the UK

Migration of ethnic groups leads to the creation of multicultural societies. Ethnic segregation is the clustering of people with the same background.

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Reasons for the development of multicultural socie

Jewish arrivals from Russia, Irish people escaping poverty, Jews and poles escaping WW2, Caribbean workers invited, Asians from India Pakistan and Bangladesh, East African Asians from Uganda, Eastern European refugees and economic migration

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Issues relating to multiculturalism

Housing, healthcare, education, language, religion, economic issues, other social issues- terrorism, immigration controls,

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The nature of separatism

  • an area which is economically depressed
  • a minority language or religious grouping
  • collapse of the state
  • strength Of supranational bodies
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Consequences of separatism

  • maintenance of societies with norms and clear separate identities
  • protection of a language through media and education
  • growth of political parties
  • civil disobedience
  • terrrorist violence
  • civil war
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Indicators of poverty

Economic: GNP per capita and GDP
Demographic and social: birth rate, death rate, fertility rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, access to drinking water, adult literacy, urban population, people per doctor

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The global distribution of poverty

Poverty gap has decreased everywhere except west Asia and southeast Europe.

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UN millennial goals

1. Eradicate extreme poverty

2. Achieve universal primary education

3. Promote gender equality

4. Reduce child mortality

5. Improve maternal health

6. Combat HIV and AIDS

7. Ensure environmental sustainability

8. Develop a global partnership for development

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