- Ruling alliance: Triumvirate
- Opposition alliance: Left opposition (Trotsky)
- Key issues: Great industrial debate; future of revolution
- Ruling alliance: Duumvirate
- Opposition alliance: New Opposition & United Opposition
- Key issues: Great industrial debate; World revolution?; Future of revolution
- Ruling alliance: Stalin
- Opposition alliance: Right opposition (Bukharin, Rykov & Tomsky)
- Key issues: Great industrial debate; future of revolution
1 of 9
Triumvirate Vs Trotsky & left opposition
- No single person had power of the party
- Party was ruled by a number of alliances
- Triumvirate's main objective was denying Trotsky power, 2 ways to do this: Stop him getting power of party & destroy his influence by questioning his ideology, loyalty to Lenin and activities since the revolution
Denying Trotsky power
- Lenin's last testament called for Stalin to be sacked which would destroy Triumvirates majority
- Zinoviev & Kamenev argued Testament undermined authority of government and should therefore be kept secret – it was, also cliamed Stalin had changed.
- Stalin’s use of being general secretary – drew up candidates to attend Party Congress as Party Congress elected Central Committee and they elected the Politburo.
- 12th party congress, 1923, approx. 30% of party members recomended by Central Committee.
- Trotsky failed to make the most of his position in the politburo and underestimated the struggle he faced
2 of 9
Triumvirate Vs Trotsky & left opposition 2
Undercutting Trotsky's influence
- Long term aim was to destroy Trotsky's reputation
- Used 'Cult of Lenin' to suggest Trotsky was disloyal to Lenin
- Stalin gave Trotsky wrong date for funeral so he missed it, making him look bad
- Zinoviev & Kamenev criticised Trotsky's book The Lessons of October, claimed it emphasied his role at the epense of Lenin's. used as evidence of Trosky's pride and betrayal of Lenin
- Attempted to show 'Trotskyism' was far from 'Leninism'. Claimed 'Trotskyism' was a form of Menshevism, incompatible with 'Leninism'
3 of 9
The Triumvirate split
- No longer had a common enemy, nothing to keep them united.
- Stalin - Socialism in one county, Z&K couldnt accept so they split early 1925
- Zinoviev & Kamenev believed they were powerful enough to take Politburo, however, undignified arguments with Trotsky lost them respect of many party members.
- Zinoviev & Kamenev formed New Opposition and Stalin & Bukharin joined forces to make Duumvirate
Duumvirate Vs the Left
- Stalin and Bukharin together had power and authority to rule. Stalin controlled Party machine & Bukharin controlled media.
- Shared ideological ground, continuing NEP and Socialism in one county.
- Together they could command a majority on the Central Committee & Politburo.
- Stopped the left gaining control
4 of 9
The Triumvirate split 2
The Duumvirate Vs the New Opposition
- New Opposition able to switch from supporting NEP to demanding immidiate industrialisation, also criticised socialism in one country
- Duumvirate defeated N.O in debate at 14th Parth Congress
- Stalin was able to appoint majority of delegates who attended Congress. Won 559-65.
- Vote proved how unpopular Zinoviev & Kamenev were.
- Kamenev removed form Sovnarkom, neither re-elected to Politburo; Bukharin replaced Zinoviev as Chairman of Comintern & replaced Kamenev as Head of Moscow Party.
- Trotsky forced to resign as Head of Red Army due to fears of him becoming a military dictator, lost his most important powerbase within the party.
5 of 9
The Triumvirate split 3
- 1926-27 new NEP problems, industry couldn't produce enough goods to satisfy wealth peasants
- Lack of goods to spend profits on meant no incentive to sell grain, or even produce extra
- 'Kulak grain strike' led to food shortages in cities and rising grain prices
- Threat of war brought Trotsky back from self-imposed retirement
- Zinoviev & Kamenev allied with Trotsky to from the United Opposition.
- United Opposition position strengthened by failure of NEP
- 15th party congress, 1927, Trotsky, Zinoviev & Kamenev were expelled from the party
- 1925, Stalin packed congress with loyal supporters & used position of Head of Central Control Commission to formally discipline opponents for supporting Trotskyist policies
- Zinoviev & Kamenev publically appologised for ideological 'crimes', readmitted to party but authority was shattered.
- Trotsky was sent into exile
6 of 9
Stalin Vs Bukharin and the right opposition
- 1928, Stalin rejected the NEP, ended alliance with Bukharin
- Bukharin appeared to be in a stronger position, part theorist; controlled media and education;favourite of the party; supported by Tomsky and Rykov
- Stalin referred to as 'Comrade Card-Index' or the 'Grey Blur'
Stalin's break with NEP
- Only supported NEP when it was successful
- 1928, he advocated rapid industrialisation & agricultural collectivisation
- Removal of Trotsky, Zinoviev & Kamenev, Left had no leadership
- Positioning himself on the left assured support from those who opposer right-wing views
- Adopting radical economic ideas similar to War Communism appealed to heroic aspirations of many Communists
7 of 9
Stalin Vs Bukharin and the right opposition 2
Clash of powerbases
- Bukharin controlled soviet media, advocate own policies and discredit opponents
- alliance with Tomsky gave him considerable power in Russia's trade unions.
- Rykov important ally - Head of State
- Stalin's powerbase located at heart of party, ability to manipulate appointments and promotions within party, fill party congress with own supporters
- as General Secretary, able to issue directives which created opinion within the Party, allowed him to undercut influence Bukharin had through the media
- NEP problems showed Bukharin wasnt such a gifted theorist
- Stalin's book widely read by new recruits, perfect for those who signed up under 'Lenin enrollment'
- Staling brought up Bukharins disagreements with Lenin to show he wasnt committed
- Bukharin accused Stalin of turning party into a bureaucracy. Stalin accused Bukharin of Trotskyism - Trotsky first to make claim of bureaucracy
8 of 9
Stalin Vs Bukharin and the right opposition 3
- Stalin knew when to retreat - Stalin lost to Bukharin in Cenral Committee and temporarily stopped emergency grain requisitioning
- Stalin excellent at manipulating party - Started false rumours about forming an alliance with Zinoviev & Kamenev, Bukharin set up a secret meeting with them and Stalin used this as evidence of factionalism - banned by Lenin, 1921
- Stalin very devious, delayed Bukharins plane twice to make him late for important meetings
- Stalin ignored Politburo and Central Committee, acted on own authority - restarted emergeny grain requisitioning, sabotaged NEP, ruining Bukharin's reputatuion
- Bukharin was keen to negotiate with Stalin in private, refused to publically condemn him
- Chose to work within the frame work of the Party rules
- Didn't use media effectively
- Tried to use Lenin's testament against Stalin, was condemned because Central Committee ruled it should be kept a secret
9 of 9