Geography WJEC

  • Created by: Lara
  • Created on: 29-04-14 12:37


River Processes:


  • hydraulic action - the force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and the pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away.
  • abrasion - rocks being carried along the river wear down the river bed
  • attrition - rocks being carried by the river smash together and break
  • solution - soluble particles and dissolved into the river


  • solution - minerals are dissolved in the water and carried along in solution
  • suspension - fine light material is carried along in the water
  • saltation - small pebbles and stones are bounced along the bed
  • traction- large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed

Deposition: when a river loses energy it will drop or deposit some material it is carrying. So this happens in shallow water when the volume of water decreases. It is more common at the end of the river's journey. At the estuary it can cause deltas.

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River Landscapes:

a river flows from an upland source to the mouth where it enters the sea. the river channel widens as it flows from its sources to the sea and the amount of water it carried increases as other streams join it. The gradient of the channel gets less. The velocity increases because there is less friction. In the upper course there is a v-shaped valley and it will wind around interlocking spurs.

Drainage Basins:

This is an area of land which is drained by a river. When the water reaches the surface there are a number of routes which it can take in its journey to reach the river. 


The area of flat valley floor around a river which tends to flood over if the river bursts it banks. You an recognise it by the absence of contour lines.


Naturally raised banks which may form alongside a river as it flows over it flood plain, it is caused by the sudden deposition of the heavier parts of a rivers load. 

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This is a bend in a river started when the river starts to erode laterally. They normally occur in the middle and lower course where the water is moving slower. They are formed by erosion. On the outside of the meander the water is deeper and the current flows faster, the force of the water erodes the outside of the bend by corrasion and hydraulic action and forms a river cliff which collapses to make a wide river channel. On the inside of the meander the water is flowing slower and has less distance to travel, here there is usually deposition because the load is heavy for it to carry forming a low bank called a point bar or slip off slope.

Oxbow Lakes:

These follow on from meanders. They are where meander processes keep on happening until the inside of the bend the river meets up with the other side and the river is provided with a straight way through instead of having to go around the meander, the loop is cut off and sealed by new deposits. 

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The water falls over hard rock onto softer rock and the softer rock is eroded away. It therefore undercuts the harder rock. The hard rock collapses and this falls into the plunge pool causing more erosion. The waterfall continuously retreats up stream leaving a gorge.

Case study of Niagara Falls:

  • usually in the summer time there a lot of tourists because it is then a daytime and evening attraction because of the lights from the Canadian side of the falls.
  • approximately 22 million people visit the attraction in a year
  • band of limestone on sandstone
  • 11km of gorge
  • creates jobs and generates income for the city
  • streets without tourists are neglected
  • houses are torn down for hotels
  • chain restaurants move in a take out family owner businesses
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This is when a river bursts it banks and water spills onto the floodplain. Flooding tends to be caused by heavy rain. The quicker water gets into the river the more likely it is to flood. 

Effect of Flooding:

Short Term: destruction of property, crops ruined, homelessness, health risks

Long Term: cost of cleaning up, replacing damaged property, health effects - e.g. cholera

MEDC: Boscastle

  • 1 injury
  • 16th of August
  • 84 cars were swept away and there were over 58 houses flooded.
  • serious damage to infrastructure
  • health risks - sewage
  • £2 million damage

LEDC: Bangladesh

  • most land is only 1m above sea level - 25%
  • snowmelt from the Himalayas
  • building on floodplains
  • deforestation
  • deltas - built on-not safe
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Flood Management

Hard engineering:

  • Dams - long river course to control discharge. released in a controlled way. 
  • River Engineering - can be widened and deepened allowing more water to flow. Increases risk of flooding downstream - used in Bostcastle 2004 flood
  • Heightened wall - increase the wall so that the river has more space to fill up and does not flood - used in Boscastle 2004

Soft Engineering

  • Afforestation - planting more trees near the river meaning greater interception and lower discharge
  • Managed Flooding - river is allowed to flood in an area to prevent flooding in other areas
  • Planning - control urban development close to or on the floodplain, reduces chances of flooding and damage to property 
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The amount of water in a river - discharge - measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second). Calculated by multiplying river velocity by the volume of water at a given point and time over a period of time and the response of a drainage basin and its river to a period of rainfall.

Factors which affect Hydrographs:

  • area - larger basins receive more precipitation than small basin therefore have runoff, however if it larger then it has a longer lag time because of the longer distance to travel
  • shape - elongated basin means lower peak flow and longer lag time
  • slope - channel flow faster downhill and shorter lag time
  • rock type - permeable rock mean rapid infiltration
  • soil - thick soil - infiltration is greater
  • land use - urbanisation means impermeable surfaces and afforestation means interception of precipitation
  • precipitation - short intense rain storms can produce rapid overland flow
  • temperature - if it is extreme weather then this causes rapid surface runoff
  • snow - act as a store 
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Climate Change

Climate Change - is the changes in regional climate characteristics such as temperature and humidity. It is considered to be one of the world's largest problems and it is LEDCs which see the harshest effects.

Global Warming - is the overall increase in temperature of the planet based on average temperature over the entire surface

The greenhouse effect is said to be the reason why the global warming is happening. The greenhouse effect is where there are gases in the earth's atmosphere which help to trap the sun's radiation which helps to regulate the earth's temperature. B


Global warming happens because of humans producing too much CO2 and other greenhouse gases this means that the gases in the atmosphere increase and therefore so does the amount of radiation which is kept and reflected back down to earth. For example burning fossil fuels and cutting down trees both increase the amount of CO2 in the air. 

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Climate Change

The Carbon Cycle:

  1. At night photosynthesis stops. The tree continues to respire and it emits more COthan it absorbs.
  2. Solar energy is absorbed.
  3. Whilst the tree is alive it absorbs more CO2 from the atmosphere than it emits.
  4. During the day the tree uses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide to plant sugars. This is photosynthesis.
  5. Organisms such as beetles and earthworms may digest the plant tissue. Their respiration adds CO2 to the air in the soil.
  6. Rainwater dissolves some of the carbon dioxide that has come from soil organisms. This water may carry the dissolved COinto a river and eventually to the sea.
  7. When branches or leaves fall they transfer the carbon that is locked in the plant tissue into the soil.
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Climate Change

Evidence of CO2 Levels Rising:

Keeling Curve:

  • measured in Hawaii since 1958
  • shows rapidly increasing CO2 levels
  • many believe it was the first thing to bring attention to rising levels of CO2

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Climate Change


Ice Cores:

  • Antarctica and Greenland
  • 3km 
  • up to 800,000 years of ices
  • can see the change in temperatures and the change in gases levels in air from air bubbles in the ice

Iceland Freak Weather:

  • higher than Portugal
  • average temperature of 3.5°C all year round and around 10°C in August and had weather of 24-27°C in July 2008
  • average annual temperature is rising
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Climate Change

Climate Change Around the World

Scientists say the temperature increased by 0.6°C over the past 100 years. which can cause problems:

  • icecaps melting so that sea levels rise - loss of important cities (13/23 cities on the coast)
  • increase in sea temperature - death of coral reefs
  • extreme weather - hurricanes more likely
  • heatwaves and drought - forest fires danger to people and homes - larger desert and tropical diseases 
  • change in ecosystems

Good effects:

  • able to grow more food in their own countries - wheat in Iceland
  • more tourism
  • melting glaciers - more hydroelectric power
  • more resources to find in Arctic and Antarctica 

Impact on the Arctic: albedo effect

  • warming at a rate of almost twice the normal rate
  • Shiny ice and water absorb more of the sun's energy, making it warm up even more than the other parts of the world 
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Climate Change


Already warmed by 0.5°C over the last 100 years, dry areas are even drier than before and crops are failing. Also more spread of disease for example Malaria which is caused by mosquitoes which increase in numbers in heat.

  • agriculture - relies on rain-fed agriculture 
  • glaciers and water - disappearing glaciers which act as a water tower 
  • disease - rainfall changes and heat - mosquitoes - can't cop with disease
  • migration -  move in response to rainfall variations - longer dry periods


  • more extreme weather - more rainfall and flash floods
  • drier and hotter summers - elderly deaths 
  • diseases may become more common 
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Climate Change

Managing Climate Change:

This is an international agreement setting targets for the industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse emissions. 140 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol and this went into action in 2005. They have committed to cut emissions to 5% below 1990 levels. 

Spilt into industrialised countries and developing countries, some countries allowed to increase emissions.

USA didn't sign because they were worried that it would hurt the businesses in the US. 

  • park and ride schemes 
  • renewable energy 
  • save hot water
  • switch off lights 
  • recycling
  • plant trees
  • public transport 
  • save energy - turn off appliances
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Active Zones

The Earth:

 The plates act rafts on the hot softer mantle below and are actually moved around by the convection currents. They are moving because of this and they sometimes collide, slide past each other and sometimes away from each other.

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Active Zones

Continental Drift 

1912 - german scientist called Alfred Wegener proposed that South America and Africa were once joined. 

  • fossils - similar found on each side of the continents
  • shape of continents
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Active Zones

Plate Tectonics 

The earth is made of large plates, that are in constant slow motion. The ocean floors are moving and spreading from the centre and sinking at the edges. It is at the edge of the plates which earthquakes and volcanoes happen. 

Constructive Plate Boundaries - where plates move away from each other

When two oceanic - ocean trenches occur e.g. mid Atlantic ridge. 

When two continental plates pull apart - rift valleys and shield volcanoes and minor earthquakes

Destructive Plate Boundaries - push together 

The denser plate is forced down into mantle to form an ocean trench. The lighter continental crust is compresses and forms fold mountains such as the Andes. Earthquakes occur when there is a sudden movement.

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Active Zones

Volcanoes - when there is a weakness in the crust allowing magma, gas and water to erupt onto land. Most occur at plate boundaries. They are classified into 

  • active - recently erupted
  • dormant - not erupted in a long time
  • extinct - no record of tectonic activity

Example: Mount St. Helens

Between Juan de Fuca plate and the North American plate, erupted in 1980.

  • Seattle in Washington USA
  • destructive plate boundary
  • predicted - first time modern technology was used
  • 57 people died
  • 250 homes destroyed

(Pyroclastic flow - burning clouds of gas and ash with temperatures of 1000 C) 

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Active Zones


Result of vibrations in the crust, caused by shock waves. The source of the shock is called the focus and the point above it in the crust is called the epicentre.  They are measured on the Richter Scale on a seismograph.

Impacts depends on:

  • strength of earthquake
  • surface rock
  • people in the area
  • time of day
  • preparation

Example: Kobe Japan 1995 

Heavily populated area in which the ground shook for around 20 seconds. 5000 people were killed in the earthquake and 3000 were made homeless. Estimated damage £100 billion.

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Active Zones

Living in an Active Zones:

500 million people live in active zones despite the risks.

  • Can't afford - the area is cheaper and therefore people just cannot afford to move out of the area
  • Tourists - volcanoes are scenes which people want to see therefore there is a lot of jobs opened up by tourism
  • Lava makes soil a lot more nutritious than other areas
  • Geothermal energy can be used to create electricity easily for the local area's

Prediction of Volcanic events:

  • shape of the ground - tiltmeters 
  • earthquake activity - seismometers
  • gas emissions and temperature - satellites 
  • magma movements - ultrasound

Preparing for Volcanic Eruptions:

  • exclusion zones
  • evacuation
  • emergency supplies
  • good communication 
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Active Zones

Living in an Active Zone - earthquake

  • popular tourist area - jobs 
  • earthquake proof buildings mean people don't worry
  • chance of being affected is low

Predicting Earthquake:

  • plate movement - laser movement
  • vibrations - seismometer
  • radon gas 

Preparing for an Earthquake:

  • earthquake drills
  • emergency kits in homes
  • earthquake proof buildings and bridges/roads - deep foundations and cross bracing 
  • Disaster Prevention Day - 1st Sept
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Where do people live?

Population density is defined as the number of people living in a square km and population distribution describes the spread of people.

Reasons for differences in population distribution:

  • Physical - relief, climate, soil, vegetation and resources such as water
  • Human - urban growth, industrial growth, agricultural development and government policies 

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Birth and Death Rates

Global population boomed in 1800. Recently the growth is due to LEDC's. Global population growth depends on birth and death rates. These are the amount babies/deaths each year for every 1,000 people. The natural increase is the different between the birth and death rate. If the birth rate is higher than death rate then the population will increase if the death rate is higher than the birth rate the population will decrease. 

Demographic Transition Model (DTM)


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  • Stage 1 - High birth and death rates with slow or stable increase. There are many children which are needed for farming but they die at a young age. There is a lot of disease and poor medical knowledge so many children and adults die quickly if they have a disease.
  • Stage 2 - Kenya - High birth rates but lowered death rates. There is a rapid increase in the number of people because children are still needed for farming. There are starting to be improvements in medical care. There is also a better water supply and sanitation.
  • Stage 3 - Brazil - The birth rate starts to decrease and the death rates starts to slow down decreasing. There is still a increase in people because of improved medical care and diet, fewer children are needed for farming. The food and medical things are still improving.
  • Stage 4 - UK or Japan - Both death rates and birth rates are quite low so there is a stable of slow increase in population. There is good family planning and there is an improving status for women so later marriages. The health care is good and there is a stable food supply.
  • Stage 5 - Germany - The birth rates are very low along with death rates and there is a slow decrease in people. Again this is because of a stable community with food, water and good health care.
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  • Stage 1 - High birth and death rates with slow or stable increase. There are many children which are needed for farming but they die at a young age. There is a lot of disease and poor medical knowledge so many children and adults die quickly if they have a disease.
  • Stage 2 - Kenya - High birth rates but lowered death rates. There is a rapid increase in the number of people because children are still needed for farming. There are starting to be improvements in medical care. There is also a better water supply and sanitation.
  • Stage 3 - Brazil - The birth rate starts to decrease and the death rates starts to slow down decreasing. There is still a increase in people because of improved medical care and diet, fewer children are needed for farming. The food and medical things are still improving.
  • Stage 4 - UK or Japan - Both death rates and birth rates are quite low so there is a stable of slow increase in population. There is good family planning and there is an improving status for women so later marriages. The health care is good and there is a stable food supply.
  • Stage 5 - Germany - The birth rates are very low along with death rates and there is a slow decrease in people. Again this is because of a stable community with food, water and good health care.
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Population Pyramids - the structure of a population on a graph

The ages are split into groups of 5 and shown in each gender in percentages and can show effects of different things like migration on the population.



It changes with development of the country. 

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This is the movement of people from one place or another to live or work. It can be short or long distance, it can also vary in time periods. 

Some pull/push factors:

  • employment
  • services
  • security
  • crime
  • fertile land
  • water
  • poverty
  • war

Mexico into USA

10,000 every week because 40% of mexico is in poverty. There is a minimum wage in USA and Mexicans will work for this wage, bringing down the wages of other Americans.

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Poland to the UK:

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Globalisation is the development of interdependence by the flow of people, money, ideas and goods. It is affected by:

  • Trade - improved transport means that goods and people can be easily moved around
  • Ideas and Communication - there is many more ways in which to communication such as the internet, emails,mobile phones and video conferencing. 
  • Media -  different cultures are being shared throughout the world for example dance, music and film 
  • MNCs (Multinational companies) - companies that have branches in different countries 

Multinational Companies - very large businesses that have office and factories in other countries, where the main headquarters is usually in developed countries. 

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Multi-national Companiesa-s-d-s-of-tncs.jpg (

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Multinational Companies 

E.g Nestle 

Started in Switzerland and grew in the second world war. 

They are in 86 countries around the world and have 456 factories in the world and employs just under 300,000 people around the world. They own 6,000 brands with a wide range of products. They have more control than a lot of countries have. 

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Trade - No county in the world has everything and so imports and exports are needed in and out of countries to trade with other countries. Usually MEDCs export valuable goods such as electronics and LEDCs usually export basic/ primary products such as sugar, tobacco and coffee. This is often why LEDCs earn so little money and remain in poverty, the country is usually forced to borrow money to pay for imports.


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Fair Trade - An organisation which sets standards for trade with LEDCs. 

  • guarantees a fair price for the farmer 
  • pays for product and investment in the local community
  • farmer uses environmentally friendly farming and good treatment of workers
  • 900 products are fair trade
  • Costa Rica coffee growers formed co-ops and grow and trade coffee
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Advantages of Globalisation:

  • wide range of products/cultures available to everyone
  • travel/work in other countries
  • safer place with interdependence 
  • positive multiplier - jobs are created and local suppliers are used meaning larger incomes so they can afford to spend the money, larger loans and local businesses. Causing more business in the local shops, opening up jobs and more taxes being paid. The government can improve the area from the taxes making the area look more attractive to other businesses.

Treats of Globalisation:

  • countries lose uniqueness and 
  • US dominance 
  • too many air miles
  • small local companies can't compete
  • some companies have more power than countries
  • factory jobs in the UK shutting down because of cheap labour
  • the internet means less control over what is presented of their country
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Brain Drain:

The main problem with globalisation is that people who are trained in their home countries then move aboard to get better pay. So the money spent in training them is lost. 

E.g. Britain - British doctors and nurses can be paid more in the USA so they move to the USA. Can migrate to Australia or New Zealand. 

India and Ghana -  Doctors are better paid in the UK and so they move to the UK to get jobs as doctors.

The negative effect this has on LEDCs:

  • The hospitals often get short staffed and so they have to work long hours and often have low morale.
  • Also the money which is spent on training people is not converted into tax paying workers.

However it is good for the NHS in Britain who wouldn't have doctors and nurses if they did not come to UK. 

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The EU: 27 countries can trade freely with others and people are free to move to other countries - Poland joined in 2004 - 500,000 from Poland to the UK 

eu-enlarge.jpg (

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NICs benefiting from Globalisation: India 

  • Universities produce engineers, IT software developers meaning that businesses are set up
  • Learn new skills in other countries and bring this along with money back to India
  • Bollywood movie industry
  • Big demand for new products in India as they have so many people - 1.3 billion
  • Indian MNCs - e.g. Tata

Tata - 

  • world's cheapest car for India
  • lots of jobs
  • increase wealth and living standards - positive multiplier


  • congestion
  • exhaust
  • loss of farmland and little compensation
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Coca Cola 

  • employ over 6,000 people in India 
  • 125,000 people have benefited indirectly
  • increases wealth - positive multiplier
  • severe water shortages - wells running dry
  • dumping waste
  • tests shown high levels of pesticides in the drinks
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Trade Patterns:

Free trade can mean that some countries are swamped with cheap imports meaning that jobs are lost in that country. They can try to protect themselves from this by:

  • placing quotas on imports and exports limiting the amount of one product allowed into the country
  • farmers can get government subsidies to help them keep costs low and produce cheap
  • different taxes for processed and unprocessed foods 
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Development is usually seen as the increasing wealth or the decreasing levels of poverty all measurements of economic development but development is:

  • reducing gap between rich and poor
  • creating equal status of men and women
  • safety from war
  • everyone has basic needs met

You can measure development with indicators which can be compared to either other countries or the past:

  • GNI - the total value of goods produced in a country in a year plus income from aboard (PER CAPITA is this divided by population of the country)
  • GDI - GNI discluding money form aboard
  • Life expectancy - average age which a person lives
  • infant mortality rate - number of babies who die before the age of 1 in every 1000
  • quality of life - measure of contentment 
  • unemployment - number of people who can't find work
  • people per doctor - per 10,0000 people
  • risk of disease
  • education
  • literacy rate
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The Brandt line is a divide between north and south and wealth and poverty. MEDCs to the north and LEDCs to the south. It came from a German politician in 1980. But has now changed. 

brandt-line.jpg (

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Now countries are split into 4 categories of wealth:

Low, lower middle, upper middle and high income.

Health Indicators:

Life expectancy and infant mortality - Countries with high life expectancy and low infant mortality tend to be those who have and can afford:

  • hospitals
  • food
  • water
  • sanitation
  • education

However in countries with high infant mortality and low life expectancy they cannot afford these things. For example people dying of preventable diseases such as Malaria - 17 million die a year because of Malaria 

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However things are improving:

South Asia - life expectancy gone from 48 up to 64 in the last 50 years 

MEDCs have an average of 80. - Sweden - LE - 81 and IMR - 3

But the big problem in is in SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  with HIV/AIDS. For example in Zimbabwe their life expectancy is down to 33. -  Sierra Leone - LE - 48 and IMR - 270

Problems in MEDCs - fast food problems and alcohol and drug problems. - prediction of UK in 2050 - 60% of adults obese and 50% of women and 25% of under 16s. This would cause big costs on the NHS.

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Ghana - varying wealth levels in different regions

  • GNI - $770 per person
  • 45% live on less than $1 a day
  • 19% of children are malnourished. 

North / South divide: 

The north has little and unreliable rainfall so farmers can only grow limited crops and many keep goats. Lack of safe drinking water, lack of jobs, lack of transport, shortage of teachers, 3 Ms - Malaria, Measles and malnutrition. 

The south has a long wet season so farmers are able to grow sorghum and cocoa. Better transport. more accessible to tourists, capital city, 2.4 times higher GNI.

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Millennium Development Goals - 

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Goal 2 and 3 - Education 

Overall 88% primary education in 2007. In the EU there is very almost 100% primary education for males and females and adult literacy. However in LEDCs - 115 million children in 2002 but down to 75 million in 2008.

The problem is mainly to do with poverty, school isn't always free and children are expected to work, also daughters are kept off school to help with other children and do chores.

South Asian countries - gender equality is a problem because women who are educated marry alter and have smaller families, also it gives them a better chance at life and a higher status, also there is an idea that educated women will provide better care for children.

Goal 6 - HIV/AIDs 

Usually effects those of working age and when they become infected they can no longer work causing the family to be poor and struggle when trying to get better as they do not have proper medication. 

Worst in Sub-Saharan Africa where there was 1.5 million deaths in 2007 and 11 million orphans.

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1 - the proportion of hungry people has decreased from 20% to 16%.

2 - poverty has fallen dramatically in Asia but elsewhere progress is slower, 50% in Sub-Saharan Africa

3 - primary education up to 88% from 83%

4 - deaths of children under 5 down to 9 million from 12 million. 

5 - AIDs deaths peaked in 2005 at 2,2 million but has declined since

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Aid - also helps countries to reach goals and is the transfer of resources from a rich country to poorer ones. 

Donors and Recipients - it is recommended that they spend 0.7% of GNP on aid each year and a few do, the large donors are Norway, Denmark and Sweden - Britian around 0.28% and USA - 0.12%. The largest recipients of aid are Eygpt, China and Indonesia.


  • saves lives
  • long term ais can improve standards of living 
  • tied aid boosts exports and secures jobs in MEDCs 
  • open market for good from MEDCs 


  • form of loans and LEDCs can sink further into debt
  • food aid causes local prices to fall and put local farmers out of business
  • tied aid may force LEDCs to buy inappropriate technology 
  • corrupt officials may pocket aid 
  • large scale infrastructure can damage the environment and cause debt
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NGO (Non-government Organisations)

Oxfam - 48 schools in Mali, with several thousand students - 45% girls - are enrolled. The ratio of book to pupil has increased from 1 to 5 to 2 to 3. 

UK - £8.5 billion over 10 years to fund education in places like Uganda where primary school enrolment has double to over 90%.

India - 63% literacy rate of young women and 46% adult. The number of girls enrolling secondary school is improving but is still not as many as the boys.

In 2003 there was 26 million children missing from primary school, only 1 in 10 young people go to higher education and are usually from well off families. 72% don't have a library. Often have to travel long distances. No female teachers. Less than 40% of teenagers go to secondary school.

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Goal 7 - water supply

The UN wants to halve the number of people that don't have access to clean water and sanitation by fixing leaks and wasting less and increasing freshwater supplies. 

South Africa - Lesotho Big Water Transfer Project 

1986 the SA government agreed with neighbouring country Lesotho a huge scheme to build 6 major dams in Lesotho and a tunnel system to transfer water to the SA city of Johannesburg. There have been arguments whether it benefits either country.

South Africa is one of the better off countries in Africa and has 559 dams, but people still don't have access to water. Sustainable methods of water collection:

  • rainwater harvesting - affordable methods for families or communities to collect and use rain water for example on the roofs and waste from washing used on the crops.
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I'd love to see more articles like this one. It's informative Uno game and thought-provoking.

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