Who: Holmes & Rahe: stated that both positive and negative life events, involve change, that lead to a change in experiencing stress.
Procedure: Used 5000 hospital patients records, noting any major life changes, before the participant became ill. They found; patients had experienced life changes before they became ill, stating; more serious life changes caused more stress + illness…
They ranked these changes/life events on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
- Made from 43 common life events, asked 400 people to rank to events in order of stress level. Measured in Life change units (LCU)
- Death of spouse was highest
- The SRRS shows a positive correlation between likelihood of illness and score on the SRRS.
AO2 Life changes
A02 (srrs): Correlation, only link, no cause, SRRS doesn’t separate positive and negative life changes (wedding), daily hassles not consider, individual differences
Supporting Evidence: Rahe
Procedure: 2500 American Navy seamen, complete SRRS form before duty (indicating all events over last 6 months). Higher LCU, more illness within navy men in next 7 months. (.118 correlation score) < positive
Conclusion: Stress levels higher, higher chance of illness.
A02: individual differences, correlation, cannot be generalised
Daily Hassles + Uplifts
Who: Delongis; Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HSUP)
What it is: The HSUP measures responses to daily situations, the HSUP provides a way of evaluating events that occur is a persons everyday life
Daily Hassles: Bouteyre et al
Daily Uplifts: Gervais
Who: Bouteyre et al, Investigated the relationship between daily hassles and mental heath of students, from school to university.
1st year Psychology students, competed the HSUP hassles, to show any hassles in their life's when going to university
Results: 41% showed depressive symptoms when moving to university.
Conclusions: Daily hassles can cause problems, causing depressive behaviours
A02: Sample bias, culture bias (french), individual differences
Asked nurses to keep a diary, for a month, recording all the daily hassles and also daily uplifts. (e.g. not enough beds GRR) or (got a compliment today, wicked)
Results: Daily hassles did increase job strain, performance and stress, however, uplifts counteracted with these hassles.
Conclusions: Daily hassles can cbe counteracted by daily uplifts
A02: Sample bias, cindivdual diffrences,
Evaluation of daily hassles
Accumulation effect: Daily hassles will basically be greater as they add on to each other, minor stressors can accumuate to cause irritations, which can cause anxiety or depression
Amplification effect: When suffering from chronic stress (divorce), daily hassles (like arguing with children) may be blown up, they will suffer higher levels of stress from this daily hassle