Cognitive Behavioural Therapy


Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)

Developed by Meichenbaum

Consists of three stages:

1. Conceptualisation

2. Skills training

3. Application

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This stage is when the client looks back at stressful situations to try to identify the key aspects of their stress.

The client may also keep a diary where they would write down stressful experiences throughout their day.

The therapist would go through these with their client to identify the source of their stress.

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Skills Training and Rehearsal

Skills Training and Rehearsal

Specific skills can be taught by a therapist to help their clients deal with certain stressful situations for example someone with social anxiety could be taught about non-verbal communication.

Relaxation techniques are often used to reduce physiological arousal to stressful situations.

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Application to the real world

This is when the client uses the techniques they have learned and practiced in a therapeutic setting in a real setting.

The client will continue to meet with their therapist to monitor the success of the therapy and change elements if needed.

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Hardiness Training

Developed by Kobasa

This also has three stages:

1. Focusing

2. Reconstructing stressful situations

3. Self-improvement

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The therapist helps their client to identify sources of stress by getting them to focus on the physiological symptoms of stressful situations.

This stage includes learning skills to help cope with stressful situations.

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Reconstructing stressful situations

Reconstructing stressful situations

This includes the client recalling recent stressful situations and evaluating how they could have been better and how they could have been worse.

This helps the client to have realistic views about stressful situations and encourages them to think positively as they look at how they could have been worse.

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This helps the client to improve their sense of self-efficacy which is their feeling of personal effectiveness and control.

This stage may include skills training similar to that of SIT and the ability to cope with stressful situations using these techniques helps to increase a feeling of self-efficacy and therefore optomism and positivity.

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Hardiness Training Evaluation


It targets the source of stress and a way of dealing with it.

It helps clients deal with stress in the future by increasing self-efficacy.


It is time-consuming and needs commitment.

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SIT Evaluation


It focuses on the source of stress as well as coping with stress.

Training in coping techniques gives the client control over stressful situations.


The training takes time and commitment and not everyone is willing to wait.

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