Sociology A2- Inequalities- Ethnicity

Inequalities relating to ethnicity- in the UK

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Inequality- Ethnicity

Racism- There is intentional and unintentional racism. An example of Intentional racism is a Brisitsh Black man not getting a job because of his skin colour. Unintentional racism however is morehidden and covert and could include the existence of an ethnocentric curriculum in schools, which may be unintentionally racism.

Cultural racism- Refers to the negativity relating to the attitudes and attributes asccoiated with groups rather than individuals an example of this is Islamophobia (hostility towards Islam, and a distrust and dislike of Muslims).

Institutional racism- Thought to pervade society and organsations within it and can be intentional/unintentional. C/S- Stephen Lawrence, the black teenager murdered in 1994, resulted in Metro Police being branded 'institutionally racist' for its handling of the murder inquiry.

Ethnic Inequalities in the workplace Survey carried out by Modood and Berthoud (1997) based on analysing household income by ethnic group found the extent of poverty among Pakistani and Bangladeshi households. As well as finding Caribbean, Indian and African Asian households were all more likely than whites to experience povert. Chinses households and simliar results to white households in terms of experience of poverty. But recent changes in ed. success of groups suggests patterns are likely to alter.

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Inequality- Ethnicity, continued

Heath and Yi Cheung(2006)- Used stat analysis to find out the extent of the ethnic penalty( defined as disadvantage ethnic minorities face in labour market compared with British whites of same age + similar human capital) in the contemp. UK. Concluded that some ethnic minority groups more likely than others to expreience the ethnic penalty. Such as Pakistanis, Bangladeshis alongside Caribbean men and women. Also concluded that first-generation migrants experienced a greater ethnic penalty than second-generation groups.

Mason (2003)- Stated that it is difficult to argue against the fact that members of some ethnic groups are severely disadvantaged in the labour market, and one reason for this may be employers' attitudes. As a result ethnic minorities figure prominently in the entrepreneurial activities in the UK.

Evidence from Business in the community included the following:

  • 14% ofBlack Caribbean men are unemployed, this is the highest rate of all ethnic groups
  • 75% Bangladeshi and 69% of Pakistani women of working-age are unemployed or seeking employment.
  • 10% of all business start-ups in the UK are by individuals from minority ethnic groups.
  • Chinese and Indian men are the most likely of all ethnic groups to be in the proffesional and managerial social classes.
  • Young people from ethnic minority groups are more likely to be in full-time education aged 18
  • S.Asian minority groups own quarter of the UK's small businesses and so have been dubbed the 'new middle class'.
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Inequality- Ethnicity, continued

Iganski and Payne (1999)- research on social mobility suggests second-generstion immigrants may have gained from the move to the service sector while the first-generation lost out in the manufacturing-based economy although this advantage for second-generation immigrants doesn't apply for everyone.

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These are really good :) my teacher for Inequalities is useless and hasn't even taught this yet :/

Thanks for posting :) <3 x

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