Social, Economic and Political Effects of Migration

Social, Economic and Political Effects of Migration

  • issues of economic migration: source country
  • issues of economic migration: destination country
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Issues of economic migration: source country

Migration affects both the area of origin and the area of destination. Economic costs to the source country include:

  • The loss of the young adults labour force
  • The loss of those with skills and entrepreneurial talents, which may slow economic development
  • Regions where out-migration takes place may suffer from a spiral of decline that is difficult to halt
  • The loss of labour may deter inward investment by private organisations, increasing dependence on governmental initiatives.
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Economic benefits:

  • Reduced uner-employment in the source country
  • Returning migrants bring new skills to the country, which may help revitalise the home economy
  • Many migrants send remittances home ans much of this money is reinvested in the home economy in projects such as new buildings and services
  • There is less pressure on resources in the area, including basic supplies such as food and essential services such as healthcare.
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Issues of economic migration: source country conti

Social costs include:

  • The precieved benefits of migration encourage more of the same generation to migrate, which has a detrimental effect on social structure
  • There is a dispoportionate number of females left behind
  • The non-return migrants causes an imbalance in the population pyramid
  • Returning retired migrants may impose a social cost on the community if support mechanisms are not in place to cater for them.

Social benefits include:

  • The population density is reduced and the birth rate decreases, as it is the younger adults that migrate
  • Remittances sent home by economic migrants can finance improved education and health facilities
  • Returning retired migrants increase social expectations in the community, for example, the demand for better leisure facilities.
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Issues of economic migration: source country conti

Political effects include:

  • Policies to encourage natural increase
  • Policies to encourage immigration to counteract outflow or to develop resouces
  • Request for international aid.
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Issues of economic migration: destination country

Economic costs include:

  • the costs of educating migrants' children have to be borne
  • there is an over-dependence of some industries on migrant labour e.g. the construction industry in the UK
  • much of the money earned, including pension payments, is repatriated to the country of origin
  • increased numbers of people add to the pressure on resources, such as healthcare services and education.

Economic benefits include:

  • economic migrants tend to take up the less desirable jobs
  • the host country gains skilled labour at reduced cost
  • the 'skills gap' that exists in many host countries is fillied by qualified migrants
  • cost of reirement are transferred back to the source country.
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Issues of economic migration: destination country

Social costs include:

  • the dominance of males reinforced, especially in countries where the status of women is low - for example, in the Persian gulf states
  • aspects of cultural indenity are lost, particularly among second-generation migrants
  • segregated areas of similar ethnic groups are created, and schools are dominated by migrant children.

Social benefits include:

  • creation of a multiethnic society increase understanding of other cultures
  • there is an indlux of new and/or revitalised providers of local services - for example Turkish baths and local cornor shops
  • there is a growth of ethnic retailing and areas assciated with ethnic food outlets - for example, the 'curry mile' in Rusholme, Manchester.
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Issues of economic migration: destination country

Political effects include:

  • discrimination against ethnic groups and miniorities which may lead to civil unrest and extremism
  • calls for controls on immigration
  • entrenchment of attitudes which may encourage fundamentalism.
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