Social, economic and political effects of migration...

What are the effects of social, economic and political effects of migration on both the source and destination country?

Refers to AQA AS Geography (Chapter 5 - Population Change)

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  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 04-04-13 17:37
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  • Social, economic and political effects of migration...
    • Issues of economic migration in the source country...
      • Economic Costs
        • Loss of young adult labour force
        • Loss of those with skills; may slow economic development.
        • Loss of labour may deter inward investment.
      • Economic Benefits
        • Reduced unemployment in the source country.
        • Returning migrants bring new skills to the economy which may help revitalise the home economy.
        • There is less pressure on resources in the area (food, healthcare..)
        • Many migrants send remittances home, which is invested in the home economy.
      • Social Costs
        • Same age group migrate. Detrimental effect on social structure.
        • Disproportionate number of females left behind.
        • The non-return of migrants causes imbalance in the population pyramid.
        • Returning migrants who have retired may impose social costs on the community is support mechanisms to care for them are not available.
      • Social Benefits
        • Population density is reduced.
        • Young adults migrate so reduction in birth rate.
        • Remittances sent home can finance improved education/ health facilities.
        • Returning retired migrants increase social expectations, e.g. demand for better leisure facilities.
      • Political Effects
        • Policies to encourage natural increase.
        • Policies to encourage immigration to counteract outflow.
        • Requests for international aid?
    • Issues of economic migration in the destination country...
      • Economic costs
        • Costs of educating children of migrants.
        • Over-dependence on migrant labour in some industries e.g. construction industry (UK)
        • Much of money earned is returned to country of origin.
        • Increase numbers increase pressure on resources.
      • Economic benefits
        • Migrants tend to take up less desirable jobs.
        • Host country gains skilled labour at a reduced cost.
        • The 'skills gap' is filled by qualified migrants.
        • Costs of retirement transferred back to the source country.
      • Social Costs
        • Aspects of cultural identity are lost, especially among second generation migrants.
        • Segregated areas of ethnic groups are created, and schools are dominated by migrant children.
      • Social Benefits
        • Creation of multi-ethnic society. Understanding of other cultures.
        • Growth of ethnic retailing e.g. curry mile, Rusholme, Manchester.
        • Influx of new providers of services.
      • Political Effects
        • Discrimination of ethnic groups.
        • Calls for control on immigration.


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