Materials whose physiclal properties change in response to an input, e.g making them simpler or safer to use.
Materials that have only been available in their present form since the 1960s or 1970s. They cannot be considered 'smart' since they do not react in any way to the environment in which they are used.
Smart material that changes colour in response to changes in temperature. It can be used in products to indicate, for example, whether food or drink that it contains is too hot to consume.
Devices that either generate electricity when loaded, or change shape/size with a useful force when connected to an electronic circuit.
Carbon-based crystals that can have their orientation changed when an electric current is passed through them.
Ceramic powders that have the ability to absorb light & then release the light energy over a long period of time. They can be mixed with acrylic paints/inks for creating illuminated signs that do not require an additional power source.
Shape memory alloy
Metal alloys specially developed to 'remember' their shape under specific conditions.