Classification of Materials

  • Created by: lala2127
  • Created on: 10-06-19 13:44

Classification of Materials

Metals - Ferrous, Non-Ferrous, Alloy

Woods - Hardwood, Softwood, Manufactured Board

Polymers - Thermoplastic, Thermosetting Polymer, Elastomer

Papers and Boards

Composites - Fibre Based, Particle Based, Sheet Based

Smart Materials

Modern Materials

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Metals

Ferrous: a metal containing mostly iron and carbon (magnetic, rusts)

  • e.g. low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, cast iron

Non-Ferrous: a metal that does not contain iron (not magnetic, doesn't rust)

  • e.g. aluminium, copper, zinc, silver, gold, tin, titanium

Alloy: metal made of 2 or more metals

  • ferrous alloy - e.g. stainless steel, die steel
  • non-ferrous alloy - bronze, brass, duralumin, pewter
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Woods

Hardwood: a wood from a broad leafed (deciduous) tree

  • e.g. oak, ash, mahogony, teak, birch, beech

Softwood: a wood from a cone bearing (coniferous) tree

  • e.g. pine, spruce, douglas fir, redwood, cedar, larch

Manufactured Board: a man-made wood based composite material

  • e.g. plywood, marine plywood, aeroply, flexible plywood, chipboard, mdf
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Polymers

Thermoplastic: material which can be reheated and reshaped repeatidly (recyclable)

  • e.g. LDPE, HDPE, PP, HIPS, PVC

Thermosetting Polymer: material which when heated goes through chemical change - cross links

  • e.g. urea formaldehyde (UF), polyester resin, epoxy resin

Elastomer: material which at room temperature can be deformed under pressure and released

  • e.g. natural rubber, polybudiene, neoprene, silicone
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Papers and Boards

Papers and Boards: compliant materials which can be scored, folded and cut with basic tools

  • e.g. cartridge paper, layout paper, tracing paper, watercolour paper, corrugated card, mount board, duplex card, foil backed and laminated card, moulded paper pulp
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Composites

Composite: a material made of 2 or more different materials, resulting with enhanced properties

  • fibre based - e.g. carbon/glass fibre reinforced plastic, fibre concrete
  • particle based - e.g. tungsten carbide, concrete
  • sheet based - e.g. aluminium composite board, engineered wood (glulam)
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Smart Materials

Smart Material: a material whose physical properties change in response to an input or change in the environment - e.g. electricity, temperature, pressure, light, etc.

  • e.g. shape memory alloys (SMA), thermochromatic pigment, phosphorent pigment, electroluminscent wire
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Modern Materials

Modern Material: a material developed through the invention of new or improved processes - do not react to external change!

  • e.g. kevlar, precious metal clay (PMC), high density modelling foam, polymorph
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